Which Native American nations were involved in the War of 1812?
#126912. Asked by Godwit. (Sep 27 12 12:13 AM)
This link gives a good summary of the Native American participation in the War of 1812.|
Although the Seneca Nation under Red Jacket and Farmer's Brother assisted the Americans in skirmishes in New York against the British the majority of the Indian Nations used the opportunity of the war to resist the further encroachment onto Indian lands by the U.S. government.
Led by Tecumseh a group of Lower Great Lakes tribes (including the Shawnee, Potawatomi, Ojibwa) banded together and fought in concert with the British. Southern tribes like the Muscogee Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, Cherokee and Chickasaw also sided with the British. The Mohawks under Chief John Norton fought with the British, too.
There doesn't appear to be agreement as to how many nations were involved. Some say 20, another states there were two dozen, and and another says 35 nations. After the war, some 200 treaties were signed.|
A Native Nations Perspective on the War of 1812
By Donald Fixico
The Shawnee war chief, Tecumseh, and his brother the Prophet, also known as Tenskatawa, played crucial roles in leading the Indians in the war. By 1811, Tecumseh had built a confederation of more than two dozen Indian nations, all of whom hoped to stop the American settler encroachment on their lands ... Tecumseh is a good case in point, since it was his decision, as a leader, to try to build a strong system of many alliances with other native nations. At the time, each native nation consisted of a few to several communities, each speaking a different language. Tecumseh realized that he had to depend on interpreters to translate his conversations and speeches to each Indian nation that he came into contact with. He also knew that he would have to raise a massive but focused army, drawing from these diverse Indian nations, a daunting task.
First Nations role in the War of 1812 'critical'
CBC News : Jun 17, 2012
The Shawnee chief Tecumseh had gathered 10,000 warriors in what is now southern Ontario in 1812, hoping to unify First Nations peoples into a confederacy with their own land and government. With Americans pushing aboriginal people off their lands to the south, Tecumseh and his supporters agreed to join the British and Canadian side during the War of 1812. British troops in North America were stretched and the participation of native warriors was a key to defending the country that would later be Canada.
The War of 1812 Could Have Been the War of Indian Independence
June 18, 2012
The War of 1812 formally began on June 18, 1812 when President James Madison signed the Declaration of War against the United Kingdom ... After the War of 1812, the United States negotiated more than 200 treaties with Indian nations that involved ceding land, 99 of those resulted in the creation of reservations west of the Mississippi River, reports PBS.org. The Treaty of Ghent-signed on December 24, 1814-ended the war and returned things between the United States and Britain to the way they were before the war ... By 1811, there were some two dozen Indian nations following Tecumseh, but to have any chance of protecting their lands against the U.S. an alliance with Britain was needed.
First Nations and the War of 1812
by James March
Tecumseh was an imposing figure who combined a passionate concern for his people with an acute strategic military sense. His colleague Isaac Brock declared that if Tecumseh were English he would have been a great general. During the War of 1812, some 35 tribal nations fought under Tecumseh, who worked tirelessly to gain the support of the Potawatomi, Ojibwa, Shawnee, Ottawa, Kikapoos and others. He had less success with some, notably the Creeks.
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