A healing heart is grows deep in the continuous effort that is compared with a river that flows. The idea is to expand the calm and the stillness with peace, wisdom and sacrifice. Healing is a gift of love, which can only be established when there is someone who gives and someone who receives. To be able to be an instrument of healing, it is required to have sincerity of conscience and to be able to receive the grace of the healing; it is required to have an opening of the heart. Moreover, it is based on the healing energy that sustains the Universal Order.
Life is and will always be an eternal flowing of river in the great universal harmony; this treasure motivates us.
During this holiday season may all of your dreams come true, and may the light of peace, health and prosperity shine on you and your loved ones.
Thank you for the opportunity to work with you, and be a part of this wonderful, kind and loving group of people.
Wishing you Happy Holidays and joyous moments.
Reply #521. Sep 12 11, 9:28 AM
Position the exercise like this:
After your small light aircraft crashes, your group, wearing business/leisure clothing, is stranded on a forested mountain in appalling winter weather (snow covered, sub-freezing conditions), anything between 50 and 200 miles from civilization (you are not sure of your whereabouts, and radio contact was lost one hour before you crashed, so the search operation has no precise idea of your location either). The plane is about to burst into flames and you have a few moments to gather some items. Aside from the clothes you are wearing which does not include coats, you have no other items. It is possible that you may be within mobile phone signal range, but unlikely.
(Other than these facts, he session facilitator may clarify particular questions from the group(s) as to details of the circumstances and the environment, and these details remain constant for the duration of the exercise. Other details may simply not be known - it's at the facilitator's discretion.)
Your (the group's) aim is to survive as a group until rescued. From the following list choose just ten items that you would take from the plane, after which it and everything inside is destroyed by fire. First you have five-ten minutes (flexible, this is up to the facilitator) by yourself to consider and draw up your own individual list of what the team should have, without consulting with other members of the group. Retain this list after presenting it briefly to the group. Then you have 30-45 minutes (up to the facilitator) as a group to discuss and agree a list on behalf of the group. Nominate a spokesperson and present this new list.
With the facilitator's help, the group(s) afterwards then reviews the benefits of discussion, teamwork, collective expertise, group communication skills, etc., in the team approach to compiling the list, compared to each individual working alone to establish a list, and obviously why the team list is likely to be better than each of the individual lists.
Choose ten from the following - splitting or only taking part of items is not permitted (again the list and number of permitted items is flexible to suit the facilitators and situation requirements. This is a long list and will provoke an enormous amount of debate. To run a quicker exercise definitely reduce the list or delegates will feel rushed.)
· Pack of 6 boxes x 50 matches.
· Roll of polythene sheeting 3m x 2m
· 1 crate of beer (12 litres in total)
· 1 bottle of brandy
· 1 crate of bottled spring water (twelve litres in total)
· Small toolbox containing hammer, screwdriver set, adjustable wrench, hacksaw and large pen-knife.
· Box of distress signal flares.
· Small basic first-aid kit containing plasters, bandages, antiseptic ointment, small pair of scissors and pain-killer tablets.
· Tri-band mobile phone with infrared port and battery half-charged.
· Clockwork transistor radio.
· Gallon container full of fresh water.
· Box of 36 x 50gm chocolate bars.
· Short hand-held axe.
· Hand-gun with magazine of 20 rounds.
· 20m of 200kg nylon rope.
· Box of 24 x 20gm bags of peanuts.
· Bag of 10 mixed daily newspapers.
· Box of tissues.
· Bag of 20 fresh apples.
· Electronic calculator.
· Laptop computer with infrared port, modem, unknown software and data, and unknown battery life.
· Inflatable 4-person life-raft.
· Large full Aerosol can of insect killer spray.
· Small half-full aerosol can of air freshener spray.
· Notebook and pencil.
· Box of size 8 women's promotional pink 'Barbie' branded fleece-lined track-suits (quantity is half of each team/group size).
· Gift hamper containing half-bottle champagne, large tin of luxury biscuits, box of 6 mince pies, 50gm tin of caviar without a ring-pull, a 300gm tin of ham without a ring-pull, and a 500gm christmas pudding.
· Travelling games compendium containing chess, backgammon and draughts.
· Sewing kit.
· Torch with a set of spare batteries.
· Box of 50 night-light 6hr candles.
· Bag of 6 large blankets.
Reply #522. Sep 12 11, 9:34 AM
Saturday, June 15, 2002
By Steve Raymer
hen I started this project, my aim was to put a human face on Islam in Southeast Asia, a goal that seems more urgent now that Southeast Asia has become a new front in the global war on terrorism.
Islam came to the region through trade, not conquest, and over the centuries preached moderation and social justice. Now, Southeast Asia’s tradition of tolerance is being tested as never before. In the months following the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan, terrorists linked to Muslim extremist groups were rounded up in Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore, which sees itself as a model of racial harmony in a region where religious passion runs deep.
Osama bin Laden T-shirts appeared along with anti-American protests on the streets of Kuala Lumpur and Jakarta. Muslims and Christians once friends and neighbors murdered, tortured and beheaded one another with a new vengeance on Sulawesi and the Maluku islands in Indonesia. And al-Qaida terrorists continued to slip in and out of Indonesia, bringing with them millions of dollars for radical Islamic organizations, recruiting members and providing military training
As troubling as these developments may be, Southeast Asia -- home to nearly 25 percent of the 1.2 billion Muslims worldwide -- is not the Middle East or South Asia, where religious violence has a long history. Not only is the Islam of Southeast Asia more tolerant -- women are encouraged, for example, to enter the professions and decide for themselves whether to cover their heads -- but the region’s links to the West are stronger. Investments in universities and educational exchanges have spawned a new elite that moves easily between the Muslim and Western worlds. Educated and urbane moderates some of whom helped me with my latest book have become a bulwark at a time when some Muslims are prepared to believe the worst about the Western democracies and cheer for extremists like bin Laden. The world now looks to these Muslim moderates to steer Southeast Asia clear of fanaticism, which festers in villages and city slums left behind by globalization.
Scholars and local journalists say the cultural traditions of Southeast Asia are too strong and the region far too ethnically diverse for radicalism to take root as deeply as it has in places like Algeria and Afghanistan, and in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Governments across the region have pumped billions of dollars into economic development projects, though the boom-and-bust cycles of global markets have alienated many impoverished Muslims. In places like Indonesia, there is an energetic free press that offers a marketplace of ideas and demands accountability from the country’s leaders. But Indonesia’s central government remains weak, its borders porous and corruption rampant all conditions that benefit a handful of uncompromising Islamic clerics who seek to radicalize the country's traditionally moderate Muslims. Contrary to popular belief in the West, most Muslims are not Arabs. By any measure, Indonesia, a land of heart-breaking poverty and enormous wealth, is the world's largest Muslim nation, followed by three Asian neighbors Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. The weight of Indonesia's numbers some 198 million believers makes Islam one of the dominant faiths of Southeast Asia. For many of these Muslims and others whose lives are far removed from the brutal world of suicide bombings and other violence, the image of extremist Islam is vexing.
After making 10 trips to the region, what seems undeniable to me is this: Islam is transforming the culture and institutions of modern Southeast Asia, sometimes buttressing them against the advance of global capitalism and Western popular culture, at other times accommodating notions of democracy and universal human rights.
In the end, Southeast Asian Muslims, like Muslims worldwide, face competing interpretations of Islam, whose history and teachings often speak of bygone glory and empires lost. No one can predict how many Muslims will rally behind ideologues who cry, "Islam is the answer!" a slogan that suggests a clash of the West and Islam. My hope is that millions more Southeast Asian Muslims will heed these words of the Koran: There is neither East nor West for God.
The Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Mosque dominates the skyline of Shah Alam in Malaysia. The mosque can accommodate about 24,000 worshippers under a computer-designed dome whose lighting system creates the illusion of being in the desert on a star-filled night.
Reply #523. Sep 12 11, 9:36 AM
Sexual Assault against Females
Estimating rates of sexual violence against women is a difficult task. Many factors stop women from reporting these crimes to police and to interviewers collecting statistics on the rate of crime in our country. Women may not want to report that they were assaulted because it is such a personal experience, because they blame themselves, because they are afraid of how others may react, and because they do not think it is useful to make such a report. However, there are statistics that demonstrate the magnitude of this problem in our country. For instance, a large-scale study conducted on several college campuses found that 20% of women reported that they had been raped in their lifetime. Another national study found that approximately 13-17% of women living in the U.S. have been the victims of completed rape, and an additional 14% of women were the victims of another form of sexual assault. The National Crime Victimization Survey estimated that 500,000 sexual assaults occurred in the U.S. from 1992 to 1993. Of those assaults, about one third were completed rapes and an additional 28% were attempted rapes.
The National Crime Victimization Survey, conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice, found that 76% of sexually assaulted women were attacked by a current or former husband, cohabitating partner, friend, or date. Strangers committed only 18% of the assaults that were reported in this survey.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a common reaction following sexual assault. Symptoms of MDD can include a depressed mood, an inability to enjoy things, difficulty sleeping, changes in patterns of sleeping and eating, problems in concentration and decision-making, feelings of guilt, hopelessness, and decreased self-esteem. Research suggests that almost 1/3 of all rape victims have at least one period of MDD during their lives. And for many of these women, the depression can last for a long period of time. Thoughts about suicide are also common. Studies estimate that 1/3 of women who are raped contemplate suicide, and 17% of rape victims actually attempt suicide.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) involves a pattern of symptoms that some individuals develop after experiencing a traumatic event such as sexual assault. Symptoms of PTSD include repeated thoughts of the assault; memories and nightmares; avoidance of thoughts, feelings, and situations related to the assault; and increased arousal (e.g., difficulty sleeping and concentrating, jumpiness, irritability). One study that examined PTSD symptoms among women who were raped found that 94% of women experienced these symptoms during the two weeks immediately following the rape. Nine months later, about 30% of the women were still reporting this pattern of symptoms. The National Women’s Study reported that almost 1/3 of all rape victims develop PTSD sometime during their lives and 11% of rape victims currently suffer from the disorder.
Reply #524. Sep 12 11, 9:37 AM
Since the tragedy of September 11, 2001, little has been said about how the attacks and subsequent events have reshaped the perspectives and lives of Arabs living in the U.S. Growing insecurity has more than ever weighing on a strange relationship with Arab and their counterparts American. Whereas Arabs Muslims have got lot of mistreatment from the American people, as these alliances are reinforced, the gap between the US and the Arab and Muslim worlds is inevitably widening. As the divisions between the United States and the Muslim world have grown and dealings with the Middle East have moved to the center of public discourse in recent years, the American public's views of the conflict have remained remarkably unstable, as well as quite complex. The American public remains adamantly opposed to all, and any form of terrorism, including those carried out by Palestinians/Arabs against neighboring countries. Every people have a prism of pain through which it views the world. For Americans today, that prism is the tragedy of September 11 that serves the same function Pearl Harbor served for an earlier generation. For African American is 250 years of Slavery. For Jews in the second half of the twentieth century, the traumatic event was the Holocaust although for many those conflicts are the lenses through which they see the world. Generation after generation since the 1940s has come of age through the painful experience of war, defeat, and dispossession. The continuing violence on the Israeli-Palestinian front and the humiliation of the Palestinians, now conveyed to every home almost instantly through satellite television, exacerbate the Arab’s pain. Although to some American, their attitudes toward Arabs and Muslims would have been affected by the tragedy of September 11 regardless of what was happening in the rest of the world. That said, however, the relationships between the United States and the escalating Israeli-Palestinian troubles and the role the United States is perceived to play in them has clearly complicated all Middle Eastern countries. As the new appointee director of the Community Relations Division of the New York Police Department, [NYPD], I will first address the Islamic community, from the entire jurisdiction in a formal conference. The goals will ranged from shared values among faith communities to the role of the Arab/Muslim in American political life. Would certainly be a discussions on 9/11 and subsequent anti-Arab, anti-Muslim backlash in the US would also be very high on the agenda. Hostility and resentment toward Arabs American Officers, which base on Misconception of the Arabs: Influences that shape the views of some American, equated the current negative depiction on the Arab American. The conference would be the beginning of a series of mandate, and new policy initiatives, calling on all Americans to make a more active role in demanding a fair, and equal treatment, and representation to Arab American of their communities. Islam is a complex religion, and while Muslims share certain beliefs and practices, there is a rich diversity among them. It is, therefore, important for non-Muslims to avoid making generalizations about Islam and Muslims, especially when reflecting upon violent and terrorist activities. The essential practices and beliefs of Islam and discusses the differences between the different groups, and the Islamic law, gender relations, the close connection between religion and politics from the Islamic perspective, and the meaning of the often-misunderstood term jihad. When one mentions the word terrorist, it conjures up stereotypical images of bearded Middle Eastern men desirous of martyrdom. While this could true, it is indeed unfortunate, in that, it raises the issue of what more can be done to fight terrorism, and other crimes against. Many U.S citizens may choose to target Arab American, however, to the degrees we can be educate in the application of Islamic law. This is as a roadblock on the path towards peace and prosperity. As a director of community relation, I will address whether general, and in particular, the need to be educating in the philosophical methods of Islamic law. Second, I will deal with the compatibility of Islamic law with modern international law. Consider the issues at hand, in order to understand how they might be view from the lens of Islamic law. Finally, I will analyze the severity of damage that is done to fallow Arab American, and its inconstancy with The U.S constitution.
Reply #525. Sep 12 11, 9:38 AM
Understanding Builds Perspective on Life and Gives Strength to Go On
Outline Design Addressing Racism
Fall Elective 2003
Year 2003 Community Needs Ministry for PCOB
To understand racism and its fundamental twists and turns is to fully explore and consider the social, cultural, political, and economic implications of its global expansion in relation to socio-capitalism. To understand culture and its power, as well as cultural property:
Cultural property includes not only land and other tangible property, but ideas, traditions, and other non-tangibles. Cultural property belongs to the cultural group, rather than to an individual. As an individual has the right to control his/her property, the cultural group has the right to control the use of all existing properties within that culture. Not all people recognize cultural property. As a result, some individuals will use another group's cultural properties without permission and a means to control; often that use is offensive to the cultural group, because their property is used in a way that distorts or is ill-mannered to the group's beliefs.
What is Racism? The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others in a culture or a society.
Ø Origin of Racism
Ø Philosophy of Racism
Ø Psychology of Racism
Ø Nations and Racism
Ø Purpose of Racism
Ø Why Racism Exists
Ø Silence toward Racism
Ø Religion and Racism
Ø Racism as Belief
Ø Practicing Racism
Ø Profiting from Racism
Ø Scripture Vs. Racism
Ø Government and Racism
Ø Racism in the twenty-first century
Review: open conversation
Selected sub-topics will be chosen for open dialogue, conversation, question and answer
Reply #527. Sep 12 11, 9:52 AM
I never owned a slave… so what’s the big deal?
I’m not responsible for that. I wasn’t even alive when those things took place.
I can’t be held accountable for that…
Certainly, we’re not suggesting that I’m responsible for that… afterall I don’t have slaves, my parents didn’t, nor my grandparents…
NO, we’re not responsible for that… right? ?
The question we need to ask ourselves is this? If I were alive at that time in history… would I have had the strength to stand for what is right. Would I have the courage to take a moral position? Or would I have followed the crowd? We’d like to think that we would have taken the higher ground… afterall… I’m ok. I’m a good person…. I’m a Christian
Let me suggest that right here, right now in 2003… this is an issue that calls for personal analysis, soul searching…
if you have the idea that you are in any shape, form or fashion superior to another person because of …
§ ethinic background
§ Social class
§ Economic status
§ Different religious views….
§ if you don’t see every human being as an equal… as a sinner before God… as a child of God… as another person that Christ died on the cross to save…
… This attitude, this pride, this self righteous ???? idea that the white man was superior among men
this thought process is the same that gave birth to slavery …
Reply #528. Sep 12 11, 9:53 AM
|Oh, ths is neat-not!|
Sunday, October 27, 2002
Edy received the packet of information that Rosa faxed to Judge Charles.
A few things to note:
§ Edy was not aware that his children were receiving psychotherapy
§ After talking with the children they said that they talk to “Miss Edna” and “Dr. Davis” about “the things our Dad does to us” and Mommy tells Miss Edna about the things Daddy does.
§ Edward went on to tell us about the pills that Dr. Davis has them taking. Edward takes 2 pills and Elysha takes 1 each day. NOTE: When the children come for a visit—they do not bring any medication with them; although they report that they take it every day at home. Edward said that on the weekends when he is with the mother, sometimes Mommy gives him his medicine in the morning, in the afternoon and at night; on school days he takes it 2 times. Elysha reports “I take the pill because I worry”.
§ It is my understanding that medications prescribed for psychiatric issues cannot be taken haphazardly; serious side-effects can occur when they are not taken exactly as prescribed.
§ Further, we could have caused harm to these children unknowingly. Example: Elysha has a cough—Edy gave her some cough medicine on Friday evening (before we knew she was taking medication)
FYI: Rosa claims that we are harassing her and her children. The truth is that I (Minnie) had charges filed against her through Cleona borough police department. For over 1 ½ years she continued to call and threaten me on the phone, she mailed me cards and letters and even went so far as to send me flowers! She entered a guilty plea on charges of harassment by communication.
I only vaguely knew about any of this.
Reply #529. Sep 12 11, 10:01 AM
This is pretty neat how it works out.
This is cool chocolate math!!!!!!!
DON'T CHEAT BY SCROLLING DOWN FIRST!
It takes less than a minute.......
Work this out as you read.
Be sure you don't read the bottom until you've worked it out! This is not
one of those waste of time things, it's fun.
1. First of all, pick the number of times a week that you would like to
have chocolate. (try for more than once but less than 10)
2. Multiply this number by 2 (Just to be bold)
3. Add 5. (for Sunday)
4. Multiply it by 50 I'll wait while you get the
5. If you have already had your birthday this year add 1752....
If you haven't, add 1751 ..........
6. Now subtract the four digit year that you were born.
You should have a three digit number .....
The first digit of this was your original number (i.e., how many times you
want to have chocolate each week).
The next two numbers are ...........
YOUR AGE! (Oh YES, it IS!!!!!)
THIS IS THE ONLY YEAR (2002) IT WILL EVER WORK, SO SPREAD IT AROUND
WHILE IT LASTS.
Reply #530. Sep 12 11, 10:05 AM
Leber Congenital Amaurosis
Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) is an inherited retinal degenerative disease characterized by severe loss of vision at birth. A variety of other eye-related abnormalities including roving eye movements, deep-set eyes, and sensitivity to bright light also occur with this disease. Some patients with LCA also experience central nervous system abnormalities. Clinical Description Individuals with LCA have very reduced vision at birth. Within an infant's first few months of life, parents usually notice a lack of visual responsiveness and unusual roving eye movements, known as nystagmus. Eye examinations of infants with LCA reveal normal appearing retinas. However, electroretinography (ERG) tests, which measure visual function, detect little if any activity in the retina. A low level of retinal activity, measured by ERG, indicates very little visual function. ERG tests are key to establishing a diagnosis of LCA. Although the causes of LCA are not well understood, researchers think the disease may either be due to an abnormal development of photoreceptor cells in the retina or to an extremely premature degeneration of these cells. The retina and its component photoreceptor cells are essential to vision as they convert light into electrical impulses and then transfer these impulses to the brain via the optic nerve. By early adolescence, various changes in the retinas of patients with LCA become readily apparent. Blood vessels often become narrow and constricted. A variety of pigmentary (color) changes can also occur in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the supportive tissue underlying the retina. Sometimes, pigmentary changes are similar to another retinal degenerative disease known as retinitis pigmentosa. Although the appearance of the retina undergoes marked changes with age, vision usually remains fairly stable through young adult life. Long term visual prognosis remains to be defined. Visual acuity in patients with LCA is usually limited to the level of counting fingers or detecting hand motions or bright lights. Some patients are also extremely sensitive to light (photophobia). Patients with remaining vision are often extremely farsighted.Many children with LCA habitually press on their eyes with their fists or fingers. This habitual pressing on the eyes is known clinically as oculo-digital reflex. The eyes of individuals with LCA also usually appear sunken or deep set. Keratoconus (cone shape to the front of the eye) and cataracts (clouding of the lens, the clear, glass-like structure through which light passes) have also been reported with this disease. In some cases, LCA is associated with central nervous system complications such as developmental delay, epilepsy, and motor skill impairment. Because LCA is relatively rare, the frequency of central nervous system complications is unknown. InheritanceLCA is genetically passed through families by the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. In this type of inheritance, both parents, called carriers, have one gene for the disease paired with one normal gene. Each of their children has a 25 percent chance (or 1 chance in 4) of inheriting the two LCA genes (one from each parent) needed to cause the disorder. Carriers are unaffected because they have only one copy of the gene. At this time, it is impossible to determine who is a carrier for LCA until after the birth of an affected child. Treatment Currently, there is no treatment for LCA. However, scientists recently isolated a gene for LCA to a chromosome 17. Ongoing scientific research is directed toward locating other LCA genes as the first step in developing a means of prevention and treatment. Some individuals with LCA, who have remaining vision may benefit from the use of low-vision aids, including electronic, computer-based and optical aids. Orientation and mobility training, adaptive training skills, job placement and income assistance are available through community resources. Related DiseasesInitially, LCA can be confused with early onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP), congenital and hereditary optic atrophy, cortical blindness, congenital stationary night blindness, flecked retina syndrome, and achromatopsia. Although similarly named, LCA should not be confused with Leber optic atrophy. In addition, there are syndromes seen in infancy where visual impairment at birth is a component. A thorough ophthalmologic examination including diagnostic tests measuring retinal function and an accurate documentation of family history can distinguish between these related conditions. The Foundation Fighting Blindness is a research foundation dedicated to finding the causes, treatments and cures for retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Usher syndrome, macular degeneration and other rare retinal degenerative diseases such as Leber Congenital Amaurosis.
Reply #531. Sep 12 11, 10:06 AM
Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
by Doreid Berro
Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochodrial genetic disease that leads to vision loss. This disease was first described by the German eye
specialist Leber in 1871(1). Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy is different from Leber's Congenital Amaurosis which is classified by cortical blindness
or congenital absence of the rods and cones or early onset of retinitis pigmentosa (9). Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy is characterized by a delayed
bilateral loss of vision which could lead to total blindness due to degeneration of the optic nerve. Early signs include peripapillary telangiectatic microangiopathy(5).
In other words the early signs are localized collection of distended blood capillary vessels around the start of the optic nerve which connects the eye
balls to the cortex of the occipital lobes of the brain. With time there is a progressive optic atrophy and vision loss. Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI)
revealed signal alterations of lenticular nucleus parts , like the globus pallidus and the putamen. The lenticular nucleus is part of the basal ganglia
that have complex neural connections with the cerebral cortex and the thalamus which are all involved in the regulation of voluntary movements at a subconscious
level. Based on these alterations, one can conclude that LHON is associated with some neurological abnormalities (7).
For a period of time two aspects of the disease puzzled the scientists. First, women only can pass the disorder to their children and children of men with
LHON never inherited the disease. Second, the disorder affects more males and it is highly variable from causing complete blindness in some people to causing
only minor loss of vision in others (8).
Doug Wallace of Emory University in Atlanta found the answers. Using restriction enzymes he found single DNA base change or transition point mutations in
certain locations of the 16,569 bp mitochondrial genome. Fifty to seventy percent of the LHON patients have the point mutations at nucleotide 11,788 (G--A)
resulting in the substitution of histidine for arginine in the ND4 subunit of complex I. Complex I is NADH- ubiqinone oxidoreductase and it is mainly involved
in the electron transfer system of the mitochondria. In about 15% of LHON patients other point mutation at nucleotide3,460 (G--A) results in the replacement
with threonine of the alanine residue of the ND1 subunit of complex I. In most of the rest of the LHON patients the mutation is at the 14,484 nucleotide
(A--G) changing methionine residue to valine in the ND6 subunit (5). The ratio of affected males to females were 3.7 to 1 for the 11,778 mutation, 4.3
to 1 for the 3460 mutation, and 7.7 to 1 for the 14,484 mutation. Other rare mutations could also lead to the same disorder like the mutation T--A at
nucleotide position 14,569 leading to the substitution of a methionine for the isoleucine in the ND6 subunit gene. Secondary mutations also occur and these
are more frequent among the LHON patients than among the non-LHON controls. These mutations produce more conservative amino acids and thus do not have
the big effect of the primary mutations (2).
The LHON base changes affect a single codon in the gene for a protein in the electron transport pathway. The subsequent protein still works but not as efficient.
The NADH dehydrogenase (ND)-dependent respiration decreases by approximately 40% in the cells that carry the mutation.(4) Moreover, there is an increase
in the lactate to pyravate ratio in the ND1 and the ND4 (6). All of this will lower the rate by which the ATP can be produced. The neurons of the optic
nerve are the first to be affected because of their high demand for the ATP. Some of these neurons die leading to an increase on the load of the other
neurons. Those in turn could malfunction or die resulting in total blindness (8).
Mitochondrial inheritance is maternal, thus Leber's is passed only from the mother to the children. Having explained the mitochondrial mutations and their
impact on the electron transfer system, we are left with the task of explaining the variability of the disease and this will be explained next.
More than 1000 mitochondria are in the egg before fertilization, each mitochondrion has its own DNA that could be carrying the defect. During cell division
mitochondria are randomly split between the two daughter cells. As a result, Leber's variability is due to the percentage of defective mitochondria carried
by the individual cell. Doug Wallace found that patients with Leber's induced blindness carried more than 70% of defective mitochondria; on the other hand,
those with milder forms had no more than 30% of the defective mitochondria (8). The dominance of LHON among males has been taken first as evidence that
the penetrance of the disease is influenced by X-linked loci and by environmental effects; however, there is some evidence that the penetrance of the disease
is also affected by the secondary LHON mutations (5).
Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy maternal mode of inheritance and the variability of the symptoms among the patients makes it a distinct disease. Many
individuals carry these genetic defects in some of their mitochondria; however, they do not develop the disease. There is no known cure for Leber's Hereditary
Optic Neuropathy and this what makes it a very serious disease. The available information about LHON is making the job of finding a treatment easier than
before and hopefully there will be a treatment in few years.
Reply #532. Sep 12 11, 10:19 AM
I am alarmed by an increasing trend in our society, which is medicating minor children with antidepressants and psychotic drugs. We all know several children that have ADHD, or ODD. These diagnoses seem to be the new favorite for children with behavioral problems. It’s as if we need to give every behavior a label, but the label isn’t enough. Oh no, the label is just the beginning. Once the label has been assigned the next logical step is to “fix” whatever ails the child. Not to worry. There’s a pill for that.
I think back to my youth and I must say that I don’t remember any of my childhood friends having ADHD or ODD for that matter. These disorders seemingly appeared from out of nowhere.
Not always prescribed by psychiatrist… family drs may not diagnose correctly
Side effects/ short term/ long term
Med expenses/ vs psychotherapy--- insurance prefers medications/ cheaper alternative
Pressure from schools/
Medication should be held off … after all other interventions have been exhausted
FDA approval ? / long term studies / children used as guinea pigs…. Quote the article in which dr. states that
Does the end justify the means?
Reply #533. Sep 12 11, 10:22 AM
John often crosses my mind. I regret that I didn’t have the strength to introduce myself to him and get to know him on a personal level. His influence continues to have a tremendous impact on my life and on Jaymee’s as well. John has been behind the scenes as I’ve attempted to encourage Jaymee ?????
Now almost two decades later as she is planning her future: college, career goals etc. I
I know John doesn’t know who I am or that he had a very profound impact on my life. I witnessed his determination and his strength. He showed me that despite his visual limitations, he could perform daily tasks and be independent.
He gave me hope…..
Reply #534. Sep 12 11, 10:22 AM
Templates / ready to go/ like flipping through the shelf at the card store/ but better…. You can customize them.
For pets even
Allows the user to be creative and design their own cards; with a little help in the way of sentiments by category/ an extensive art gallery from which graphic images, cartoons and photographs can be selected and inserted into projects
Disappointed in the selection of art… no search utility / no catalog/ so you have to look through the various categories and preview the images
Reply #535. Sep 12 11, 10:24 AM
As if this is not enough reason for concern:
It is our right and responsibility to questions issues that seem out of line. I respect clinicians, I know many dedicated, devoted and qualified health care practitioners and they do a fine job. Each day they do the best that they can to treat their patients… I’m not suggesting that this is a malicious act or that it is done to harm children… but the fact remains that children could be harmed in the current situation.
Here’s a message to the HMOs and other insurance companies: you get what you pay for. If children’s mental health needs are not met now, how much money will you be saving when they are adults still in treatment?
Reply #536. Sep 12 11, 10:25 AM
Alliteration is the repetition of initial consonant sounds in neighboring words.Example: In cliches: sweet smell of success, a dime a dozen, bigger and better, jump for joy Wordsworth: And sings a solitary song That whistles in the wind.
Allusion is a brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or ficticious, or to a work of art. Casual reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event.
An allusion may be drawn from history, geography, literature, or religion. Example:
Stephen Vincent Benet's story "By the Waters of Babylon" contains a direct reference to Psalm 137 in the Bible.
Analogy is the comparison of two pairs which have the same relationship. The key is to ascertain the relationship between the first so you can choose the correct second pair. Part to whole, opposites, results of are types of relationships you should find. Example:
hot is to cold as fire is to ice OR hot:cold::fire:ice
a.naph.o.ra n. [LLat. Gk. anapherein, to repeat: ana-, again + pherein, to carry] The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs.
One of the devices of repetition, in which the same phrase is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines
Connotation is an implied meaning of a word. Opposite of denotation. Example:
Good noght, sweet prince, and flights of angels sing thee to thy rest (burial)
An author's choice of words. Since words have specific meanings, and since one's choice of words can affect feelings, a writer's choice of words can have great impact in a literary work. The writer, therefore, must choose his words carefully. Discussing his novel "A Farewell to Arms" during an interview, Ernest Hemingway stated that he had to rewrite the ending thirty-nine times. When asked what the most difficult thing about finishing the novel was, Hemingway answered, "Getting the words right." Return to Menu
Hyperbole is exaggeration or overstatement. Example: I'm so hungry I could eat a horse. He's as big as a house.
Irony is an implied discrepancy between what is said and what is meant.
Three kinds of irony:1. verbal irony is when an author says one thing and means something else. 2. dramatic irony is when an audience perceives something that a character in the literature does not know.
3. irony of situation is a discrepency between the expected result and actual results. Example: "A fine thing indeed!" he muttered to himself.
Metaphor comparison of two unlike things using the verb "to be" and not using like or as as in a simile. Example: He is a pig. Thou art sunshine.
Simile is the comparison of two unlike things using like or as. Related to metaphor Example:
He eats like a pig. Vines like golden prisons.
Tone is the attitude a writer takes towards a subject or character: serious, humorous, sarcastic, ironic, satirical, tongue-in-cheek, solemn, objective.
The tone set by the mayor, made the city a very tense and angry place to live and work.
Reply #537. Sep 12 11, 10:27 AM
SATURDAY.--I am almost a whole day old, now. I arrived yesterday. That is as it seems to me. And it must be so, for if there was a day-before-yesterday I was not there when it happened, or I should remember it. It could be, of course, that it did happen, and that I was not noticing. Very well; I will be very watchful, now, and if any day-before-yesterdays happen I will make a note of it. It will be best to start right and not let the record get confused, for some instinct tells me that these details are going to be important to the historian some day. For I feel like an experiment, I feel exactly like an experiment, it would be impossible for a person to feel more like an experiment than I do, and so I am coming to feel convinced that that is what I am--an experiment; just an experiment, and nothing more.
Then if I am an experiment, am I the whole of it? No, I think not; I think the rest of it is part of it. I am the main part of it, but I think the rest of it has its share in the matter. Is my position assured, or do I have to watch it and take care of it? The latter, perhaps. Some instinct tells me that eternal vigilance is the price of supremacy. (That is a good phrase, I think, for one so young.)
Everything looks better to-day than it did yesterday. In the rush of finishing up yesterday, the mountains were left in a ragged condition, and some of the plains were so cluttered with rubbish and remnants that the aspects were quite distressing. Noble and beautiful works of art should not be subjected to haste; and this majestic new world is indeed a most noble and beautiful work. And certainly marvellously near to being perfect, notwithstanding the shortness of the time. There are too many stars in some places and not enough in others, but that can be remedied presently, no doubt. The moon got loose last night, and slid down and fell out of the scheme--a very great loss; it breaks my heart to think of it. There isn't another thing among the ornaments and decorations that is comparable to it for beauty and finish. It should have been fastened better. If we can only get it back again--
But of course there is no telling where it went to. And besides, whoever gets it will hide it; I know it because I would do it myself. I believe I can be honest in all other matters, but I already begin to realize that the core and centre of my nature is love of the beautiful, a passion for the beautiful, and that it would not be safe to trust me with a moon that belonged to another person and that person didn't know I had it. I could give up a moon that I found in the daytime, because I should be afraid some one was looking; but if I found it in the dark, I am sure I should find some kind of an excuse for not saying anything about it. For I do love moons, they are so pretty and so romantic. I wish we had five or six; I would never go to bed; I should never get tired lying on the moss-bank and looking up at them.
To-day I am getting better ideas about distances. I was so eager to get hold of every pretty thing that I giddily grabbed for it, sometimes when it was too far off, and sometimes when it was but six inches away but seemed a foot--alas, with thorns between! I learned a lesson; also I made an axiom, all out of my own head--my very first one: The scratched Experiment shuns the thorn. I think it is a very good one for one so young.
I followed the other Experiment around, yesterday afternoon, at a distance, to see what it might be for, if I could. But I was not able to make out. I think it is a man. I had never seen a man, but it looked like one, and I feel sure that that is what it is. I realize that I feel more curiosity about it than about any of the other reptiles. If it is a reptile, and I suppose it is; for it has frowsy hair and blue eyes, and looks like a reptile. It has no hips; it tapers like a carrot; when it stands, it spreads itself apart like a derrick; so I think it is a reptile, though it may be architecture.
Continued from page 6
I was afraid of it at first, and started to run every time it turned around, for I thought it was going to chase me; but by and by I found it was only trying to get away, so after that I was not timid any more, but tracked it along, several hours, about twenty yards behind, which made it nervous and unhappy. At last it was a good deal worried, and climbed a tree. I waited a good while, then gave up and went home.
To-day the same thing over. I've got it up the tree again.
SUNDAY--It is up there yet. Resting, apparently. But that is a subterfuge: Sunday isn't the day of rest; Saturday is appointed for that. It looks to me like a creature that is more interested in resting than in anything else. It would tire me to rest so much. It tires me just to sit around and watch the tree. I do wonder what it is for; I never see it do anything.
They returned the moon last night, and I was so happy! I think it is very honest of them. It slid down and fell off again, but I was not distressed; there is no need to worry when one has that kind of neighbors; they will fetch it back. I wish I could do something to show my appreciation. I would like to send them some stars, for we have more than we can use. I mean I, not we, for I can see that the reptile cares nothing for such things.
It has low tastes, and is not kind. When I went there yesterday evening in the gloaming it had crept down and was trying to catch the little speckled fishes that play in the pool, and I had to clod it to make it go up the tree again and let them alone. I wonder if that is what it is for? Hasn't it any heart? Hasn't it any compassion for those little creatures? Can it be that it was designed and manufactured for such ungentle work? It has the look of it. One of the clods took it back of the ear, and it used language. It gave me a thrill, for it was the first time I had ever heard speech, except my own. I did not understand the words, but they seemed expressive.
When I found it could talk I felt a new interest in it, for I love to talk; I talk all day, and in my sleep, too, and I am very interesting, but if I had another to talk to I could be twice as interesting, and would never stop, if desired.
NEXT WEEK SUNDAY.--All the week I tagged around after him and tried to get acquainted. I had to do the talking, because he was shy, but I didn't mind it. He seemed pleased to have me around, and I used the sociable "we" a good deal, because it seemed to flatter him to be included.
WEDNESDAY.--We are getting along very well indeed, now, and getting better and better acquainted. He does not try to avoid me any more, which is a good sign, and shows that he likes to have me with him. That pleases me, and I study to be useful to him in every way I can, so as to increase his regard. During the last day or two I have taken all the work of naming things off his hands, and this has been a great relief to him, for he has no gift in that line, and is evidently very grateful. He can't think of a rational name to save him, but I do not let him see that I am aware of his defect. Whenever a new creature comes along I name it before he has time to expose himself by an awkward silence. In this way I have saved him many embarrassments. I have no defect like his. The minute I set eyes on an animal I know what it is. I don't have to reflect a moment; the right name comes out instantly, just as if it were an inspiration, as no doubt it is, for I am sure it wasn't in me half a minute before. I seem to know just by the shape of the creature and the way it acts what animal it is.
When the dodo came along he thought it was a wildcat--I saw it in his eye. But I saved him. And I was careful not to do it in a way that could hurt his pride. I just spoke up in a quite natural way of pleased surprise, and not as if I was dreaming of conveying information, and said, "Well, I do declare if there isn't the dodo!" I explained--without seeming to be explaining--how I knew it for a dodo, and although I thought maybe he was a little piqued that I knew the creature when he didn't, it was quite evident that he admired me. That was very agreeable, and I thought of it more than once with gratification before I slept. How little a thing can make us happy when we feel that we have earned it.
THURSDAY.--My first sorrow. Yesterday he avoided me and seemed to wish I would not talk to him. I could not believe it, and thought there was some mistake, for I loved to be with him, and loved to hear him talk, and so how could it be that he could feel unkind toward me when I had not done anything? But at last it seemed true, so I went away and sat lonely in the place where I first saw him the morning that we were made and I did not know what he was and was indifferent about him; but now it was a mournful place, and every little thing spoke of him, and my heart was very sore. I did not know why very clearly, for it was a new feeling; I had not experienced it before, and it was all a mystery, and I could not make it out.
But when night came I could not bear the lonesomeness, and went to the new shelter which he has built, to ask him what I had done that was wrong and how I could mend it and get back his kindness again; but he put me out in the rain, and it was my first sorrow.
SUNDAY.--It is pleasant again, now, and I am happy; but those were heavy days; I do not think of them when I can help it.
I tried to get him some of those apples, but I cannot learn to throw straight. I failed, but I think the good intention pleased him. They are forbidden, and he says I shall come to harm; but so I come to harm through pleasing him why shall I care for that harm?
MONDAY.--This morning I told him my name, hoping it would interest him. But he did not care for it. It is strange. If he should tell me his name, I would care. I think it would be pleasanter in my ears than any other sound.
He talks very little. Perhaps it is because he is not bright, and is sensitive about it and wishes to conceal it. It is such a pity that he should feel so, for brightness is nothing; it is in the heart that the values lie. I wish I could make him understand that a loving good heart is riches, and riches enough, and that without it intellect is poverty.
Although he talks so little he has quite a considerable vocabulary. This morning he used a surprisingly good word. He evidently recognized, himself, that it was a good one, for he worked it in twice afterward, casually. It was not good casual art, still it showed that he possesses a certain quality of perception. Without a doubt that seed can be made to grow, if cultivated.
Where did he get that word? I do not think I have ever used it.
TUESDAY.--All the morning I was at work improving the estate; and I purposely kept away from him in the hope that he would get lonely and come. But he did not.
At noon I stopped for the day and took my recreation by flitting all about with the bees and the butterflies and revelling in the flowers, those beautiful creatures that catch the smile of God out of the sky and preserve it! I gathered them, and made them into wreaths and garlands and clothed myself in them whilst I ate my luncheon--apples, of course; then I sat in the shade and wished and waited. But he did not come.
But no matter. Nothing would have come of it, for he does not care for flowers. He calls them rubbish, and cannot tell one from another, and thinks it is superior to feel like that. He does not care for me, he does not care for flowers, he does not care for the painted sky at eventide--is there anything he does care for, except building shacks to coop himself up in from the good clean rain, and thumping the melons, and sampling the grapes, and fingering the fruit on the trees, to see how those properties are coming along?
TUESDAY--WEDNESDAY--THURSDAY--and today: all without seeing him. It is a long time to be alone; still, it is better to be alone than unwelcome.
I had to have company--I was made for it, I think,--so I made friends with the animals. They are just charming, and they have the kindest disposition and the politest ways; they never look sour, they never let you feel that you are intruding, they smile at you and wag their tail, if they've got one, and they are always ready for a romp or an excursion or anything you want to propose. I think they are perfect gentlemen. All these days we have had such good times, and it hasn't been lonesome for me, ever. Lonesome! No, I should say not.
We have made long excursions, and I have seen a great deal of the world; almost all of it, I think; and so I am the first traveller, and the only one. When we are on the march, it is an imposing sight--there's nothing like it anywhere. For comfort I ride a tiger or a leopard, because it is soft and has a round back that fits me, and because they are such pretty animals; but for long distance or for scenery I ride the elephant. He hoists me up with his trunk, but I can get off myself; when we are ready to camp, he sits and I slide down the back way.
The birds and animals are all friendly to each other, and there are no disputes about anything. They all talk, and they all talk to me, but it must be a foreign language, for I cannot make out a word they say; yet they often understand me when I talk back, particularly the dog and the elephant. It makes me ashamed. It shows that they are brighter than I am, and are therefore my superiors. It annoys me, for I want to be the principal Experiment myself--and I intend to be, too.
I have learned a number of things, and am educated, now, but I wasn't at first. I was ignorant at first. At first it used to vex me because, with all my watching, I was never smart enough to be around when the water was running up-hill; but now I do not mind it. I have experimented and experimented until now I know it never does run up-hill, except in the dark. I know it does in the dark, because the pool never goes dry; which it would, of course, if the water didn't come back in the night. It is best to prove things by actual experiment; then you know; whereas if you depend on guessing and supposing and conjecturing, you will never get educated.
At first I couldn't make out what I was made for, but now I think it was to search out the secrets of this wonderful world and be happy and thank the Giver of it all for devising it. I think there are many things to learn yet--I hope so; and by economizing and not hurrying too fast I think they will last weeks and weeks. I hope so. When you cast up a feather it sails away on the air and goes out of sight; then you throw up a clod and it doesn't. It comes down, every time. I have tried it and tried it, and it is always so. I wonder why it is? Of course it doesn't come down, but why should it seem to? I suppose it is an optical illusion. I mean, one of them is. I don't know which one. It may be the feather, it may be the clod; I can't prove which it is, I can only demonstrate that one or the other is a fake, and let a person take his choice.
By watching, I know that the stars are not going to last. I have seen some of the best ones melt and run down the sky. Since one can melt, they can all melt; since they can all melt, they can all melt the same night. That sorrow will come--I know it. I mean to sit up every night and look at them as long as I can keep awake; and I will impress those sparkling fields on my memory, so that by and by when they are taken away I can by my fancy restore those lovely myriads to the black sky and make them sparkle again, and double them by the blur of my tears.
After the Fall
When I look back, the Garden is a dream to me. It was beautiful, surpassingly beautiful, enchantingly beautiful; and now it is lost, and I shall not see it any more.
The Garden is lost, but I have found him, and am content. He loves me as well as he can; I love him with all the strength of my passionate nature, and this, I think, is proper to my youth and sex. If I ask myself why I love him, I find I do not know, and do not really much care to know; so I suppose that this kind of love is not a product of reasoning and statistics, like one's love for other reptiles and animals. I think that this must be so. I love certain birds because of their song; but I do not love Adam on account of his singing--no, it is not that; the more he sings the more I do not get reconciled to it. Yet I ask him to sing, because I wish to learn to like everything he is interested in. I am sure I can learn, because at first I could not stand it, but now I can. It sours the milk, but it doesn't matter; I can get used to that kind of milk.
It is not on account of his brightness that I love him--no, it is not that. He is not to blame for his brightness, such as it is, for he did not make it himself; he is as God made him, and that is sufficient. There was a wise purpose in it, that I know. In time it will develop, though I think it will not be sudden; and besides, there is no hurry; he is well enough just as he is.
It is not on account of his gracious and considerate ways and his delicacy that I love him. No, he has lacks in these regards, but he is well enough just so, and is improving.
It is not on account of his industry that I love him--no, it is not that. I think he has it in him, and I do not know why he conceals it from me. It is my only pain. Otherwise he is frank and open with me, now. I am sure he keeps nothing from me but this. It grieves me that he should have a secret from me, and sometimes it spoils my sleep, thinking of it, but I will put it out of my mind; it shall not trouble my happiness, which is otherwise full to overflowing.
It is not on account of his education that I love him--no, it is not that. He is self-educated, and does really know a multitude of things, but they are not so.
It is not on account of his chivalry that I love him--no, it is not that. He told on me, but I do not blame him; it is a peculiarity of sex, I think, and he did not make his sex. Of course I would not have told on him, I would have perished first; but that is a peculiarity of sex, too, and I do not take credit for it, for I did not make my sex.
Then why is it that I love him? Merely because he is masculine, I think.
At bottom he is good, and I love him for that, but I could love him without it. If he should beat me and abuse me, I should go on loving him. I know it. It is a matter of sex, I think.
He is strong and handsome, and I love him for that, and I admire him and am proud of him, but I could love him without those qualities. If he were plain, I should love him; if he were a wreck, I should love him; and I would work for him, and slave over him, and pray for him, and watch by his bedside until I died.
Yes, I think I love him merely because he is mine, and is masculine. There is no other reason, I suppose. And so I think it is as I first said: that this kind of love is not a product of reasonings and statistics. It just comes--none knows whence--and cannot explain itself. And doesn't need to.
It is what I think. But I am only a girl, and the first that has examined this matter, and it may turn out that in my ignorance and inexperience I have not got it right.
Forty Years Later
It is my prayer, it is my longing, that we may pass from this life together--a longing which shall never perish from the earth, but shall have place in the heart of every wife that loves, until the end of time; and it shall be called by my name.
But if one of us must go first, it is my prayer that it shall be I; for he is strong, I am weak, I am not so necessary to him as he is to me--life without him would not be life; how could I endure it? This prayer is also immortal, and will not cease from being offered up while my race continues. I am the first wife; and in the last wife I shall be repeated.
Reply #538. Sep 12 11, 10:28 AM
Evolution as Fact and Theory
Topics for Writing and Discussion
1. I think Gould’s purpose in mentioning his friend, Kirtley Mather was to point out that the debate over evolution has been going on for a long time.
2. Gould draws a distinction between fact and theory by comparing and contrasting the two.
3. Gould’s is trying to persuade the creationists. Throughout the article he speaks to the arguments of the creationists and refutes each, one by one.
4. The arguments are as follows:
i. Abundant, direct, observational evidence of evolution in action, from both the field and the laboratory
ii. The imperfection of nature reveals evolution.
iii. Transitions are often found in the fossil record.
5. The new theory proposed by Gould and Eldredge is the theory of punctuated equilibrium. He defends this theory by giving a clear explanation of the theory and also by addressing opposing ideas and providing a counterargument.
6. The pattern of the essay is to define concepts and compare and contrast them. Yes, the essay does develop more than one definition.
Writing assignment / Definition
2. Yes, it’s true the precise meaning of words is essential to understanding an argument. Without conveying the proper meaning your argument could lose it’s strength. For example: The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word evolution as follows:
a. The process of unrolling, opening out or disengaging from an envelope
b. Emergency or protrusion from the folds of an envelope
c. The process of evolving, disengaging or giving off gas, heat, light, sound; an instance of this process
d. The unfolding or opening out of a curve (math)
e. The extraction of any root from any given power, reverse of involution (arithmetic)
f. A process of evolving, developing or working out in detail, what is implicitly or potentially contained in an idea or principle, the development of design argument etc
g. The result of this process
h. Of animal & vegetable organisms and their parts, the process of developing from a rudimentary to a mature or complete state
i. Theory of evolution- hypothesis that the embryo or germ instead of being brought into existence by the process of fecundation is a development of expansion of a pre-existing form which contain rudiments of all parts of the future organisms
j. Origination of species of animals and plants as conceived by those who attribute it to a process of development from earlier forms
k. The development or growth according to inherent tendencies of anything that may be compared to a living organism- sometimes contrasted with revolution. Also the rise or organization of anything by natural development as distinguished from it’s production by a specific act growing as opposed to being made
l. The formation of the heavenly bodies according to recurred theory which supposes it to have taken place by the concentration and consolidation of cosmic matter
m. In recent philosophical speculation used in more comprehensive sense of which the senses are regarded as special applications, the development of human societies
n. A tactical movement
o. The unfolding or opening of a body of troops or squadron of ships
p. A wheeling about, a movement in dancing, gymnastics & recurring movement of a portion of a machine
q. The act of rolling (anything) out on a spindle
Reply #539. Sep 12 11, 10:28 AM
Genres I have read recently:
§ News reports
§ Technical instructions/ explanations
Genres I have written recently:
§ Technical instructions
I think that my writing is influenced to a great extend by what I read. When reading, I evaluate the style of the writer and make mental notes of the things that I like and dislike. I try to use this information when I write.
Reply #540. Sep 12 11, 10:30 AM
This thread has been closed to new replies.
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