Special Sub-Topic: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and Kemalism
|When Mustafa Kemal was born in 1881, the Republic of Turkey was far from established. Of course, he lived under the rule of which centuries-old powerful empire? |
The Ottoman Empire. Atatürk's main principles worked to overwrite many of the injustices that the Ottoman Empire was inflicting on its people. He also saw his country as in need of desperate reform. He would later change the parts of the Ottoman Empire that are now Turkey so much, that they would become virtually unrecognizable, a feat he is glorified for today.
|Kemalism, the philosophy established by Mustafa Kemal, is based on "Altı ok", which is Turkish for what? |
Six Arrows. The six basic characteristics of the Republic of Turkey, all established by Atatürk, still hold strong today. They form the basic of Kemalist philosophy and ideology. They have been present as a part of grand reforms since September of 1923, a few weeks before the Republic was officially declared, on October 29, 1923.
|The first of the six principles of Kemalism is Republicanism, which abolishes which very integral law behind Ottoman rule? |
The Sultanate. Atatürk was adamant about his first arrow, Republicanism or in Turkish, "cumhuriyetçilik". It gave the people the right to elect their leaders, as opposed to the tyrants and heirs that ruled the Ottoman Empire for centuries due to its principle of absolute monarchy. In addition, all leaders would have their decisions and actions reviewed extensively by judicial boards.
|The second principle of Kemalism was one that eventually gave women the right to vote in 1934. Which of the six is known in Turkish as "halkçılık"? |
Populism. Populism is defined as striving to achieve the best for the national public; Mustafa Kemal believed that everyday Turks were the ultimate rulers of the country, and that their satisfaction and happiness was the most powerful factor in driving the country forward. This principle led to women's suffrage in 1930 for local elections, and later 1934 for all elections. Turkey was one of the foremost predominantly Islamic countries to grant women the right to vote.
|The third principle of Kemalism, Securalism, states which of the following? |
All of these (All religions in Islam-dominated Turkey were to stand at an equal distance from the government, The state is against religion that prohibits modernization, technology, and democracy, No interference whatsoever between the state and religion). Atatürk's "laiklik" does not only remove all religious interference in the state, but also dictates all religions are equal, a decision deemed very controversial in the Middle East at that time. The Ottoman Empire promoted Islam as its one and only religion, and Atatürk's principles on freedom of religion and expression were seen as cutting edge during the 1920s.
|Atatürk's fourth principle, "inkılâpçılık" or Turkish for Revolutionism, can be described as the exact opposite of what ideology? |
Conservatism. The fourth arrow states that in order to improve the country, modernization must occur and traditional practices and values must be replaced with improved ones. This is the first of the arrows to deal predominately with social change and does not touch on politics or laws directly. Mustafa Kemal felt many traditional concepts and customs could be harmful to society, and saw conservatism and inflexibility as a danger to the country.
|The fifth principle of Kemalism advocates the strength of Turkish Nationalism. Atatürk promoted the pride of the Turkish nationalist movement by coining the phrase: "Ne mutlu Türküm diyene!" as opposed to pro-monarchy slogans the sultans advocated during their reign. This means "How happy is one who calls himself a Turk!"|
t. Nationalism or "milliyetçilik" insists on preserving the pride and power of being Turkish, as opposed to being a subject in a kingdom or empire. It is a reason that even today Turks have a great pride in their country and their identity. Mustafa Kemal expanded the definition of "Turk" as people with a common past and a will to share a common and fruitful future. As a result, racism and sexism is relatively uncommon in Turkey.
|The last of the six reforms was Atatürk's successful attempt to improve the country's economy through state intervention. This principle is referred to as what? |
Statism. Statism or "devletçilik" allowed government intervention by virtue of privatizing many industries and funding technological advancements and modernization, both of which Ataturk viewed as integral for the country's growth. Laïcité is a result of secularism, whereas Pan-Turkism is a result of Turkish Nationalism.
|Atatürk was adamant about improving communication in his country. As a result, he worked towards eliminating Ottoman Turkish and crafted a new Latin-variant Turkish alphabet which is still in use today (part of this quiz is written in it!). In what script was Ottoman Turkish written? |
Arabic. Ottoman Turkish was not only much more difficult to learn, but it was not even understood by most average Turkish citizens, who spoke an almost entirely different language during Ottoman rule. Atatürk introduced the Latin alphabet and changed the entire language structure and vocabulary to match that of the majority of the population. The Turkish alphabet has 29 letters, including 8 vowels.
|It was with great sorrow that the global community heard of this great leader's death in 1938. At which great Turkish palace was "the Father of the Turks" residing at the time of his death? |
Dolmabahçe Palace. Dolmabahçe has been visited by millions of tourists since Atatürk's death, and the room where he passed away is available for tourists to see. In honor of his death, all the clocks are paused at 9:05, the time of his passing.
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