Special Sub-Topic: St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh
|The oldest parts of the present building are believed to date from what year?|
1120. The oldest parts of the present building are the four massive central pillars. The church burnt down in 1385 but was rebuilt. Over the next 150 years, lots of chapels were added, including ones set up by the craftsmen's guilds of Edinburgh, ones endowed by prominant merchants and nobles, and a relic of St. Giles. But there are about 50 altars in the church from the middle of the 16th century.
|Mary Queen of Scots never attended a service in St. Giles after The Reformation.|
t. The Reformation was the time when the Church of Scotland broke away from the Church of Rome. In Scotland the reformed faith moved towards a Calvinist and Prebyterian system. Mary Queen of Scots never attended service in the reformed church, but she more than likely attended Parliament sessions held there.
|What year did the church actually become a cathedral?|
1633. In 1633, more than a century after The Reformation, Charles I decided to appoint bishops in Scotland. St. Giles then became a cathedral with a bishop appointed by Charles.
|What part of the cathedral is the memorial of James Graham, the Marquis of Montrose?|
Chepman aisle. James Graham was the leader of Charles I's forces in Scotland. He was executed at the Mercat Cross in 1650, and his head was placed on a spike outside the church. After the Restoration of Charles II, Montrose's head and body were buried in St. Giles with full honors.
|The building's most modern window, built in 1985, honors which poet?|
Robert Burns. The Burns Window is the west window, built by Icelandic artist Leifur Breidfjord. It celebrates the themes within the poetry of Robert Burns in a semi-abstract style.
|Who planned and paid for most of the restoration of 1872-1883?|
William Chambers. In the first half of the 1800s, St. Giles was in disrepair. In 1829, some of the chapels were demolished. During the years 1872-1883, the Chambers' Restoration was carried out. Most of this was paid for by William Chambers, the publisher and former Lord Provost of Edinburgh. The building was cleaned, old galleries and walls were removed, and new stained glass was put in the windows.
|What year was the Thistle Chapel buit?|
1911. The Thistle Chapel was designed by Robert Lorimer for the Order of the Thistle, Scotland's great order of chivalry. The Chapel contains 16 stalls for the knights, a sovereign's stall, and two royal stalls. The carvings in the chapel have great detail, both religous and heraldic, much of it being particularly Scottish. There are even angles who play bagpipes.
|What year was the first organ installed?|
1878. The first organ was a manual built by Harrison & Harrison. This organ was moved, extended, altered, and rebuilt many times over the next 100 years, and in 1988 it had become obvious that it would need replacing. The current organ was built by the Austrian firm of Rieger Orgelbau in 1992.
|Who started the famous riot in St. Giles in 1637?|
Jenny Geddes. The riot was in opposition to the imposition of a new liturgy written by Archibishop Laud. Supposedly, the riot started when a local woman called Jenny Geddes threw her stool at the Dean saying, "De'il colic the wame o'thee -- wouldst thou say Mass at ma lug". This was called the "Jenny Geddes incident" and was followed in 1638 by the signing of the National Covenant and a more formal opposition to the king's plans.
|Which of the stained glass windows shows the crossing of the Jordan and three heroines of the Old Testament?|
The Burne-Jones Window. This window was designed by Edward Burne-Jones and made in the workshops of William Morris. The upper part shows the crossing of the Jordan and the lower part shows the figures of three heroines of the New Testament.
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