Special Sub-Topic: The Montgomery Bus Boycott
|When did Rosa Parks refuse to move out of her seat on the bus? |
December 1955. This was a protest against the fact that "Blacks" had to surrender their designated seats at the back of the bus to "Whites" who had nowhere else to sit.
|What was the name of the bus driver who ordered Parks to give up her seat? A name he shares with a professional tennis player.|
James Blake. When Parks refused, Blake called the police and she was arrested. This was not the first time Parks had been in trouble with the police, as she was a civil rights activist.
|In December 1943, Rosa Parks became an active member of which civil rights group?|
NAACP. The "National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People" was founded in 1909 and is considered the oldest civil rights organization of the USA. Parks became involved in the Montgomery branch of the NAACP.
|Which specific event was supposed to be the main reason for Parks' refusal to give up her seat?|
The murder of Emmett Till. Till was murdered in August 1955 by Roy Bryant, as Till apparently "wolf-whistled" at Bryant's wife.
Although it is likely the bus driver was rude to Parks beforehand this was not the main reason for her act of defiance.
The "Brown vs Board of Education" decision was made in 1954. It stated that segregation in schools was "unconstitutional", and is seen as a major breakthrough in the Civil Rights movement.
The signing of the "Southern Manifesto" was two months after the start of the "Montgomery Bus Boycott". The manifesto was a collection of southern politicians who agreed to fight the "Brown vs Board of Education" ruling.
|What was the name of the local leader of the NAACP, who was one of the first to take action (in the form of the Montgomery Bus Boycott) in response to Parks' arrest?|
E.D. Nixon. Randolph was the founder of the "Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters", the first all-black trade union.
Stokely Carmichael was the leader of the SNCC in the late 60's and was an advocator of "Black Power".
Newton (along with Bobby Seale) founded the militant "Black Panthers".
Edgar Daniel Nixon was also a member of the "Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters".
|Another key player in the Montgomery Bus Boycott was Jo-Ann Robinson, leader of the WPC. But what did the WPC stand for?|
Women's Political Council. She printed many flyers informing the black population in Montgomery of the proposed boycott.
|A third big player in this event was Ralph Abernathy, a local minister. Which future civil rights leader did Abernathy suggest become involved in the Montgomery Bus Boycott?|
Martin Luther King Jr. King proved to have strong oratorical skills and he formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957. He later became involved in other famous events, such as demonstrations in Birmingham in 1963 and in Washington (also in 1963). At the latter King made his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
|The beginning of the Montgomery Bus Boycott led to the formation of which of these groups?|
MIA. MIA stood for the Montgomery Improvement Association, and it aimed to tackle segregation in areas such as education and transport.
|How long did the boycott last?|
381 days. After the Supreme Court upheld the ruling that segregation on buses was "unconstitutional" in November 1956, the Boycott officially ended in December 20th 1956.
|Where is the bus on which Parks refused to leave her seat kept?|
In the Henry Ford Museum. The bus, number 2857, is a symbol of the start of the new civil rights movement, which struggled through legislation, violence and black economic and political empowerment to achieve more civil liberties for Afro-Americans.
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