I should have pointed out, as my daughter's teacher did, that these rules apply to ENGLISH words, including, of course, not only those of Anglo-Saxon origin, but of Latin, Greek, French, et al, that are now part of the English lexicon.
All of the examples given by paper_aero and jonnowales are loanwords straight from Urdu, Persian, Arabic, and Hebrew. Note here
, for example, has been anglicized to burka
. Possibly in our globalization we'll see less of this and more retention of original forms. Or perhaps not; who knows?
I used to get my six-year-old to rattle this rule off for my amusement:
"The phonogram sh is used at the beginning or end of a base word (she, dish), at the end of a syllable (fin-ish), but never at the beginning of a syllable after the first one except for the ending ship (wor-ship, friend-ship)."
Quite a mouthful, huh?