Interesting Questions, Facts and Information
- There are a total of 40 general entries. We are selecting 30 for display.
Interesting Questions, Facts, and Information
|When Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, died, Pope Innocent III elected an Englishman as the new Archbishop. John refused him entrance to England and thus England was placed under ban and then John was excommunicated. Who was the Englishman appointed Archbishop?||"The Conquering Family" by Thomas B. Costain
Stephen Langton. Langton was instrumental in uniting the barons who eventually forced John to sign the Magna Charta. John signed because he had been backed into a corner and saw no choice, but he had every intention of coming back to fight another day.
|Richard I, knowing John's perfidious nature, had thought to leave the kingdom to his nephew, born of Geoffrey. This however, was not done and the kingdom was left to John. Geoffrey's son did however try to claim the throne. What was his name?||"The Conquering Family" by Thomas B. Costain
Arthur. John captured Arthur, and demanded that he swear fealty. Arthur would not and John responded by ordering that his eyes be put out. His guard did not carry out the order, but put out that Arthur had died during the attempt. This caused a furor and the child had to be produced to prove that he was alive. Thereafter, John had him sent to Rouen and he was never seen again.
free his mother, Eleanor. One of Richard's first acts was to free his mother from sixteen years of incarceration at Winchester. Henry had her guarded there to stop her from conspiring with their sons. Her imprisonment is cited as one of the reasons Richard and his father could not reconcile.
Then Richard began finding money for the Crusade and he managed to marry Berengaria.
|During the last sixteen years of his life, King Henry II fought battles with his sons and their allies over the control of many of his lands. Which of his legitimate sons were still alive at his death?||"The Conquering Family" by Thomas B. Costain
Richard and John. Henry and Eleanor's children, in birth order, were William, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey, John, Matilda, Eleanor and Joan. William died a toddler. Henry and Geoffrey died during the sixteen years of war with their father.
|King Henry II had grand ambitions, one of which was to have each of his boy children become kings of his empire. This was, in part, the reason for his incursion into Ireland. Which of his sons was to be proclaimed King of Ireland?||"The Conquering Family" by Thomas B. Costain
John. The coronation for John never took place. The Irish kings joined forces in rebellion and John retreated back to England.
|King Henry II met Thomas à Becket in the first year of his reign. For many years, while Becket held the post of Chancellor, the two strong-willed men worked companionably together to improve England. What caused the split between them, and was the eventual catalyst for the words Henry spoke which caused Becket's death?||"The Conquering Family" by Thomas B. Costain
Becket accepted the post of Archbishop of Canterbury. When Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, died in 1162, Henry's intent was to have a man he liked and trusted, Becket, fulfill the posts of Chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury. Becket once warned him that this would not work, saying "If you do as you say, you will soon hate me, my lord King, as much as you love me now", but in the end, Becket took the post of Archbishop and resigned as Chancellor. Thus began a struggle between the two men concerning supremacy of church or state.
Louis VII of France. Louis gave Eleanor back her marriage portion when the marriage was over. Approximately two months later Eleanor and Henry were married.
|Though King Henry I made it clear that his intent was to have his daughter, the Empress Matilda, succeed him on the throne, Stephen of Blois seized the throne and the treasury. This precipitated civil war for many years. How was a resolution reached?||"The Conquering Family" by Thomas B. Costain
treaty. Stephen and Matilda settled the issue with the Treaty of Wallingford. The treaty stated that Stephen would remain king for his lifetime, at which time Henry, son of Matilda and Geoffrey, the Count of Anjou, would become king. Stephen did not live long after the agreement and Henry II was crowned at the age of 21.
|One of the last chapters tells the tale of Roger Bacon, a researcher during this period who had studied at Oxford and in France. He lived in London at Folly Bridge during the period of the civil wars. Which religious order did he join when money became short?||"The Magnificent Century" by Thomas B. Costain
Franciscans. Bacon had interested Cardinal Folques in his studies; when the cardinal was elected to become Pope Clement IV, he requested that Bacon write to him of his studies. Bacon sent three treatises, but Clement was in ill health, and it's doubtful that he ever read them. Sometime after Clement's death, Bacon was imprisoned for heresy for twelve years. During the last two years of his life, after his release, he wrote his last treatise.
|In the final battle of the barons, King Henry III was armored to fight. Once the fighting began, Henry was moved to safety by one of the royalists. Simon de Montfort and the barons were defeated. What is the name that this battle is remembered by?||"The Magnificent Century" by Thomas B. Costain
Battle of Eversham. De Montfort was killed and his body severely mutilated, his head ending up on a lance for display. Of the one hundred sixty knights that fought with him, only twelve survived. There was stringent punishment doled out to all those defeated. A quote from the memoirs of Robert of Gloucester says "Such was the murder at Eversham, for a battle it was not."
|On March 8, 1265, a parliament which was to become known as "The Great Parliament" met. King Henry III and the barons, including Simon de Montfort, were in attendance. Why is this known as "The Great Parliament"?||"The Magnificent Century" by Thomas B. Costain
For the first time the common man was present.. Simon was at the peak of his power at this time; although he did not participate in the ceremony, it had been scripted beforehand. He had invited common men from all the major towns and boroughs participate for the first time. All of the other items were also agreed at the parliament, but they are not why it is called "The Great Parliament".
|Though Henry III would agree when backed into a corner, he believed it was his right to do as he pleased because he was king. Eventually the barons, led by Simon de Montfort, started a civil war in 1264 for the right to have a say in the governance of their country. How is the battle that the barons won remembered?||"The Magnificent Century" by Thomas B. Costain
Battle of Lewes. De Montfort and the barons won this battle when the King and his son, Edward, agreed to terms from a surrounded windmill called Mill of the Hide. Three men were appointed as counsel to King Henry: Simon de Montfort, Gilbert of Gloucester and Stephen of Birkstead.
Ranulf of Chester gave them back. Ranulf of Chester and Simon campaigned together when Henry III made an unsuccessful effort to regain lands in France. Once they returned to England, Chester began working on transferring the properties back to Simon; on January 7, 1238, Henry III ceded the estates back to Simon.
|During Henry III's reign all five of William Marshal's sons died without issue. Many believed that this was due to a curse issued during a long-term property dispute in Ireland. Who cursed William Marshal's offspring?||"The Magnificent Century" by Thomas B. Costain
Bishop of Ferns. Marshal seized the property during a war effort, but the Bishop disagreed. After Marshal's death, Henry III intervened to attempt to get the Marshal's sons to cede the property. His sons were not amenable to "giving back" the property. The Bishop then cursed them, saying that they would die in Henry's lifetime with no issue.
William, the eldest, died of intestinal issues. Richard was attacked in Ireland after a truce and died from his wounds. Gilbert attended an illegal tournament and fell from his horse. Walter and Anselm died within a month of each other of unknown causes. None left children behind.
|Though Henry III had looked for marriage partners, he was not married until he was twenty nine, to Eleanor from Provence. She had written a long and romantic poem which stirred his interest when forwarded to Henry. What nickname was she known by?||"The Magnificent Century" by Thomas B. Costain
Eleanor La Belle. Eleanor and Henry were married at Dover on January 4, 1236. They did not meet until she landed on English soil. Throughout her reign she did not like her English subjects, and was very critical and condescending, but Henry remained besotted. Her subjects didn't like her either, and even once went so far as to throw things at her and the ship she used to try an escape on the Thames.
|William Marshal had died and at fourteen years of age, Henry III began to look for advice from another soldier, Hubert de Burgh. This continued for about ten years until the Bishop of Winchester returned to England and once again began influencing the king. Who was the Poitevin bishop?||"The Magnificent Century" by Thomas B. Costain
Peter de Roches. While William Marshal was regent, he lead the fight to defeat the French in England. De Roches tutored and cared for Henry during this period. When he fell out of favor he left, later returning to become the power behind the throne for a while.
William Marshal. Before dying King John requested that William Marshal become the regent, stating, "In his loyalty, above that of any other man, I put my trust". Marshall wanted to rest and take his peace at home for his last years, but, in the end, agreed to act as regent.
|Edward III married Philippa of Hainault in 1327. Their first male child was Edward, also known as the Black Prince. Why did the Black Prince never claim the throne?
||"The Three Edwards" by Thomas B. Costain
he predeceased Edward III. Edward, the Black Prince, was sick for many years, though no one knew why he was sick. It was at the Battle of Crécy that his father gave him the black armor which was to earn him the sobriquet of the Black Prince. He died in 1376, and his father, Edward III, died in 1377.
|Edward III would fight many battles in his quest to claim the throne of France. At which battle did he give his son Edward the infamous black armor and so anger Phillip VI that the English easily defeated the much larger French forces?||"The Three Edwards" by Thomas B. Costain
Battle of Crécy. Edward was displaying a banner that included the leopards of England and the lilies of France. This so enraged Phillip that he went precipitously into battle although his soldiers were exhausted from the march. Edward had placed the archers at extreme advantage, and they able to hold off any French advance by means of their swift and accurate arrows.
|Edward III became king at fifteen years of age and a regent was appointed, although his mother, Queen Isabella had expected to be regent and did assume most of the responsibilities. Edward did not assert his authority until several years later when he staged a coup to take over power from his mother, the Queen, and Roger Mortimer, her paramour. What punishment was meted out to Mortimer?||"The Three Edwards" by Thomas B. Costain
death by hanging at Tyburn. It is believed that Roger Mortimer was the first in a long line of folk to meet their death by hanging at Tyburn. Queen Isabella was sent to Castle Rising where she lived out the remainder of her life.
Queen Isabella, his consort. Isabella and her paramour, Roger Mortimer, had raised forces in the Low Countries. They landed in England on September 24, 1326, and captured the king on November 16th. He was officially deposed on January 20, 1327. He was moved many times to prevent the possibility of rescue and finally, he was killed on October 11 of the same year.
|Though Edward I thought that Scotland was subdued, William Wallace continued to harass the English. Where did Wallace fight and win a battle against a much larger English army in 1297?||"The Three Edwards" by Thomas B. Costain
Stirling Bridge. The English had superior numbers and clearly expected to win without much trouble, but Wallace used cunning strategy to defeat the English. He continued to skirmish with the English armies. The barons fought among themselves and would not follow Wallace because he was base-born.
|One of the legends about Edward I and the Welsh wars should be told. Queen Eleanor traveled with Edward everywhere, and their son was born at Caernaurvon Castle in 1284. Days after, the Welsh came to ask Edward for a prince who was beyond reproach and could speak neither English nor French. Who was it that Edward selected? ||"The Three Edwards" by Thomas B. Costain
his son Edward, several days old. The Welsh proclaimed fealty after King Edward stated "He has been born a native of your country. His character is unimpeachable. He cannot speak a word of English or French. If it please you, the first words he utters shall be Welsh."
|During the Welsh wars Edward I was fighting Llewelyn ab Gruffydd and his brother David. Llewelyn was killed in battle and his brother David was captured. His punishment was to be hanged, drawn and quartered. What had been his crime?||"The Three Edwards" by Thomas B. Costain
treason. It is possible that this punishment, though often in use later, was created for David. He had been on the side of the English, then switched to his brother's side, and he was considered a double traitor. The punishment was to be dragged at the heels of a horse to the site of the execution, hanged but cut down before consciousness was lost, entrails to be cut out, head chopped off, and then his body to be divided into four parts.
Battle of Bosworth Field. The battle was fought between Richard III and Henry Tudor, who became King Henry VII and the first of the Tudor dynasty.
Since that time many historians, scholars, and others such as William Shakespeare, have blamed Richard for a number of felonious deeds. The last portion of the book discusses the belief that because Richard lost and died during the Battle of Bosworth Field, that the history written at the behest of Henry VII told the victor's story, not the truth.
|During Edward IV's reign he became convinced that, although his brother, George, Duke of Clarence, had helped him attain the throne, he was now involved in a plot of treason. George was executed, but what story was circulated about his execution?||"The Last Plantagenets" by Thomas B. Costain
drowned in a butt of malmsey. The execution took place on the seventeenth or eighteenth of February. The story circulated that Clarence had requested, and been granted, the drowning in a butt of malmsey as the execution method.
|Henry V, after many negotiations with the French was at last to marry Katherine, the daughter of King Charles VI and Queen Isabeau of France. He broke many traditions when they were betrothed. Why were they not wed at the cathedral of Troyes?||"The Last Plantagenets" by Thomas B. Costain
Henry, wandering, found and preferred a quaint church.. Henry was betrothed to the Fair Kate the second time they met, with negotiations over the lands of France continuing. Henry arrived in full armor and placed the ring belonging to successive English Queens on Kate's finger. In addition, he appointed an English knight to be her guard while she remained in France.
The wedding took place at St. Jean, a church that Henry had found while wandering. Apparently he liked the quaintness and the ivy on the walls, and pictured their troth in a friendly chapel.
|Henry IV took the crown from Richard II in 1399. During his reign Rome was becoming more concerned about the spread of Lollardy. What punishment for heresy was put in place and first carried out during his reign?||"The Last Plantagenets" by Thomas B. Costain
burning at the stake. William Sawtree, a curate from St. Bennet Sheerhog, was the first to be punished in this manner. He had been charged with heresy and recanted, but it was determined that he had relapsed. He was burned in chains as an example to all heretics.
Henry IV was the son of John of Gaunt, and the first King from the house of Lancaster. He was sickly during his reign, and had several acute episodes of what was called leprosy, though it is speculated today that the troubles could have been heart related.
|During the majority of Richard II's reign, three of his royal uncles added to the confusion of his reign. Which one of the uncles was so hated by the people that one of his homes, the Savoy, was destroyed by fire during the Peasant Revolt?||"The Last Plantagenets" by Thomas B. Costain
John of Gaunt. John had been a favorite of their father, Edward III, and was a very rich and powerful man. He was a traveler, and brought back many items that were also destroyed when the Savoy burned. He longed for a crown, but his efforts at claiming the Castilian throne were unsuccessful.
Lionel of Antwerp died in 1368, soon after Richard took the crown. Not much is mentioned of Edmund of Langley. Thomas of Woodstock was of the belief that he should have been the English king, and made sure that all knew it.
had his brother and father swear to Richard's succession. When Edward, the Black Prince, was dying he wanted to ensure that his son would be crowned upon the death of the current king, Edward III, his father. Edward III was under the influence of Alice Perrers, his mistress, and John of Lancaster (or John of Gaunt as he is referred to now) was more in his favor. Both men swore fealty to Richard. The Black Prince died in June 1376, and Edward III died in February 1377. Richard II, at ten years of age, was crowned King.