Special Sub-Topic: Biochem Basics of Carbohydrates
|Which of the following is a simple sugar or monosaccharide?|
Galactose. Galactose is a simple sugar. Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are all disaccharides or two simple sugars bonded together.
|What is the molecular formula for glucose?|
C6 H12 O6. Glucose is a 6-carbon sugar. CO2 is carbon dioxide. C12 H22 O11 is a disaccharide. C H3 OH is methanol or methyl alcohol.
|Maltose is composed of which two simple sugars?|
2 glucose. Maltose, or malt sugar, is made from 2 glucose molecules bonded together. Glucose and galactose bonded together form lactose.
|What is the disaccharide milk sugar called?|
Lactose. Lactose is the disaccharide found in milk. It is made of the simple sugars galactose and glucose. Dextrose is another name for glucose, which are both simple sugars.
|What kind of sugars are found in the disaccharide sucrose?|
Glucose & fructose. Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of one glucose molecule bonded together with one fructose molecule. Sucrose is a common sugar. It is white table sugar and often the sugar found in fruit.
|What is the principal carbohydrate storage product in plants?|
Starch. Starch is the carbohydrate storage product in plants. Glycogen and cellulose are also polysaccharides (long chains of simple sugars). Glucose is a simple sugar and is not usually used for long term carbohydrate storage.
|The supporting material in cell walls, wood, and dietary fibre are examples of what carbohydrate?|
Cellulose. Cellulose is a carbohydrate used as supporting material in plants. Starch is the carbohydrate storage product in plants, and glycogen is carbohydrate storage in animals. Glucose is a simple sugar that is likely to be the building blocks in a polysaccharide.
|How is glucose stored in animals?|
As glycogen in liver & muscles. When animals need a quick supply of sugar for energy, glycogen in the liver and muscles is quickly converted to glucose.
|Which is NOT a carbohydrate?|
Protein. Proteins are a nutrient class separate from carbohydrates. Polysaccharide (a long chain of simple sugars), pentose (5-carbon sugar), and galactose (a simple 6-carbon sugar) are all carbohydrates.
|When digesting a complex carbohydrate, water is added and simple sugars are obtained through which process?|
Hydrolysis. Hydrolysis adds water to a long chain molecule, creating many smaller molecular building blocks. Condensation and dehydration synthesis are the opposite reaction of hydrolysis. Photosynthesis creates glucose from carbon dioxide and water using the sun's energy.
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