Special Sub-Topic: Boudica
|What is the modern name of the country where Boudica lived?
England. Boudica lived in the east of England, in what is now Norfolk.
|Of what tribe was Boudica the queen?
Iceni. The Iceni lived in modern Norfolk. The Catuvellani were in the south of England, and were among the first tribes to fall to the Roman invasion of Britain. The Brigantes were located in the north and the Silures in what is now Wales.
|Although her legend has spawned thousands of pages of writing, written historical records of Boudica are found in only two classical sources. Who were these two writers?|
Tacitus and Dio Cassius. Tacitus' father-in-law, Agricola, was Roman governor of Britain, which may explain his interest in Boudica's Rebellion. His is the only contemporary Roman account of Boudica, written a few decades after her death. Dio Cassius wrote more than a hundred years later, and his account is presumed to be based on Tacitus' writing.
|Who was Boudica's husband?
Prasutagus. Venutius was the husband of Cartimandua, another Celtic queen. Caractacus was the chief of the Catuvellauni, another Celtic tribe. Aulus Plautius was a Roman general at the time of the Claudian conquest of Britain.
|Following the death of her husband, his lands were confiscated by the Romans. What happened to Boudica and her daughters?|
Boudica was flogged and her daughters raped by soldiers.. Tacitus says that Boudica was flogged and her daughters "outraged" or raped, this treatment leading her to raise a rebellion.
|In response to her treatment by the Romans, Boudica raised a rebellion against them, destroying three cities. Which were they?|
Camulodunum, Londinium and Verulamium (Colchester, London and St. Albans). Colchester, London and St. Albans are in the southeast of England, the centre of Roman occupation at the time of Boudica's Rebellion. Bath, Gloucester and Chester are in the west. Caerlon, Caerwent and Carmarthen are in modern Wales. Corbridge, York and Manchester are in the north of England.
|Eventually, Boudica's forces were defeated by a heavily outnumbered Roman contingent led by this Roman. Who was he? Hint - he shares a name with a famous Roman historian.|
Gaius Suetonius Paulinus. Suetonius abandoned London as indefensible. He had two legions and auxiliaries, about 10,000 men. Boudica's force was numbered by Tacitus at 100,000 and by Dio Cassius at 230,000. The II August legion was at Exeter, but did not march to assist Suetonius. Its commander, Poenius Postumus, fell on his sword on hearing of Suetonius' victory over Boudica. Quintus Veranius was Suetonius' predecessor as governor. Nero was Emperor during Boudica's Rebellion. Agricola was governor some twenty years later.
|Where did the battle in which Boudica and her forces were defeated take place?|
The exact location is unknown, but somewhere in the west Midlands.. Various locations have been proposed for the final battle, but no exact location has been found. Suetonius would not have returned to London, he would have taken the Watling Street, a Roman road running northwest from the southeast shore of Britain. He might have chosen a location near where he could meet the II Augusta, the legion which did not come to his aid. In any case, he made his stand in a narrow place where he could not be overwhelmed by superior numbers of Britons, and eventually drove the British back on to their own lines, where retreat was hampered by masses of women and children who had come along to see the battle. There is archaeological evidence for the sacking of London and Colchester in Boudica's time.
The battle of Stamford Bridge was fought in 1066 when Harold Godwinson defeated Harald Hardrada before turning to fight William at Hastings.
|Defeated in battle, what happened next to Boudica, according to Tacitus?
She took poison.. According to Tacitus (Annals 14:29-39) Boudica exhorts her army before the battle, "in this battle you must conquer or die. This is a woman's resolve; as for men, they may live and be slaves." She took poison after her defeat. Nothing is said about the fate of her daughters, who rode into battle with her.
|Boudica's name probably comes from the Celtic word "bouda" which means victory. Not surprisingly, she was adopted as a national heroine during the reign of another British queen. Who was this queen?|
Queen Victoria. Boudica was forgotten in Britain in the Middle Ages. There is no mention of her in Geoffrey of Monmouth's "History of the Kings of Britain" nor in the Mabinogian, nor in Bede. When classical sources were rediscovered in the Renaissance, Boudica eventually made her way into literature and popular consciousness. It was in the Victorian Era that Boudica became a favourite heroine. Tennyson wrote a poem in her honour, and a statue of her in her chariot, commissioned by Prince Albert, stands outside the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Bridge.
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