Special Sub-Topic: Communist Russia pre-1930
|In 1903 the Communist party split into two groups - the Bolsheviks and the ...|
mensheviks&Mensheviks. The Bolsheviks (meaning "majority group") were led by Lenin and the Mensheviks ("minority group") were led by Trotsky. Here is an extract from http://www.justmorons.com/almanac.html. "The Russian terms for majority and minority are bolshevik and menshevik, respectively, and so these factions took their names. Later the Mensheviks became the majority party, meaning that the Mensheviks had become bolsheviks and the Bolsheviks mensheviks."
|When did Tsar Nicholas II abdicate?|
March 1917. Nicholas had gone to the front line to take control of the army. While he was gone the people rebelled. When he realised how serious the situation was he tried to return to Petrograd (the capital). His train was stopped outside the city and his generals advised him to abdicate.
|Who was the leader of the Provisional government?|
Kerensky&Kerenski. The Provisional Government took over power after the abdication of the Tsar. It only lasted 8 months before the Bolsheviks took over after storming the Winter Palace.
|What was the name of the first Communist secret police, set up in December 1917?|
Cheka&cheka. The Cheka was very useful to the Communists in the Russian Civil War. Cheka units hanged, beat, shot and burned anyone who helped the Whites (the name of the opposing army - the Communists were known as the Reds.)
|Lenin was determined to get Russia out of the First World War. To do this he signed a very harsh treaty with the Germans. What was it called? The Treaty of ...|
Brest-Litovsk. The treaty was signed in March 1918. Russia lost a huge amount of land including 1/6 of her population. She also lost 3/4 of her iron and coal and 1/4 of her farmland.
|What does NEP stand for?|
New Economic Policy. Lenin introduced the NEP because of the unpopularity of his policy of War Communism. War Communism was so unpopular that people started to riot and there was a naval mutiny. Lenin realised he neede to change it quick before he lost control.
|What does USSR stand for?|
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In theory the USSR was a democracy and a federal state with parliaments elected by the people. However the Communist party was the only party, so in effect it was a dictatorship.
|What year did Lenin die?|
1924. Lenin's body was put on display in Red Square in Moscow, later permanently embalmed.
|Who eventually suceeded Lenin?|
Stalin. Lenin was wary of Stalin and had warned the Communist party against choosing him as their leader. Initially, Lenin was succeeded by a troika (group of three) consisting of Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev. Though Trotsky was popular and the heir apparent to Lenin he was outmanoeuvred by the troika and in particular, by Stalin.
|Stalin exiled Trotsky from the Soviet Union. Where did Trotsky end up?|
Mexico. He was expelled from the party in 1927 and exiled in 1929 because Stalin saw him as a threat. In 1940 he was assassinated by an agent of the Soviet secret police.
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