Special Sub-Topic: Israel's War of Independence
|On November 29th, 1947, the UN approved a plan to create two states: one Arab, one Jewish. What happened the next day?|
Three Jewish buses were attacked and the Arab prisoners in the British prison in Acre rioted.. Two of the buses were on their way from Netanya to Jerusalem, and seven Jews were killed in these attacks. The third bus was on its way from Nazareth to Haifa. The general strike was announced on December 2. The meeting in Cairo took place on December 8. The Egyptian army invaded at the same time as the other armies, in May of 1948 after the State of Israel was created.
|How many cannons did the Jewish forces have when the fighting began?|
|In what month did the Jewish leadership decide on a change of tactics, from passive defence to pre-emptive offence?|
April 1948. The new strategy was first implemented in operation "Nahshon", which began on the night of April 2, and the objective of which was to seize control of the road to Jerusalem in order to allow the transfer of supplies and reinforcements to the Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem, which was besieged. The operation was successful, but was only one of many battles that would take place in and around Jerusalem.
|The creation of the State of Israel was announced on May 14 1948. The next day the armies of the Arab nations began their invasion. What countries did these armies come from?|
Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria.. The Jordanian forces were the "Arab Legion" which had been part of the British forces until Britain's withdrawal (Jordan was actually the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan at the time). Initially the five armies planned to create a common command center, but they had too many disagreements, and eventually they just divided the different fighting zones amongst themselves. Jordan objected to the initial plan because they suspected that it benefited Syrian interests more than their own. Egypt refused to confirm their participation in the invasion until May 12. Lebanon made a last minute change in the plan, because the Christians and the Shiite Muslims in South Lebanon objected to the invasion.
|What was the name of the operation in which children were evacuated from small towns in an area where there was heavy fighting? |
"Tinok". "Tinok" means baby. "Heram" and "Kilshon" were also operations during the war. Operation "Tinok" took place between 15-19 of May 1948, and the entire non-fighting populations of "Hartov", "Gat", "Kfar Menachem", "Negba" and "Nitzanim" were evacuated.
|The official order creating the Israeli army, the IDF (Israeli Defense Force), was published on May 28 1948. Many people agree that the most significant section of the order is section four. What does it state?|
There will be no armed militia in Israel, and the IDF will be the only armed force.. This section was important because until then there had been three separate fighting forces. The "Haganah", which was the largest force, was also the most mainstream, and it formed the basis for the IDF. Two more radical groups, "Etzel" and "Lehi", also existed. "Lehi" disarmed and disbanded immediately, but "Etzel" tried to retain a measure of independence, and eventually things heated up to the point where government forces fired on the "Etzel" weapons ship "Altalena" in June. After that "Etzel" was disarmed and its fighters divided up amongst the IDF units.
|What was the name of the road to Jerusalem that was built by the Israeli forces during the war? |
Burma. The road was named after the road that the Allies built from Burma to China during WWII. The other names are operations that were carried out in the Jerusalem area during the war.
|The first Israeli fighter planes arrived from Czechoslovakia after the war had already started, and were assembled in a hurry. What was their first mission?|
An attack on Egyptian forces near Asdod.. The attack was successful in halting the advance of the Egyptian forces towards Tel Aviv, although this is often attributed to the shock the Egyptian soldiers got when they discovered Israel had fighter planes, rather than to a successful attack.
|One of the Arab leaders tried to make a deal with Israel during the war. |
t. King Abdullah of Jordan wished to retain control of the areas that had been allocated to the Palestinian state according to the UN partition plan, and to add them to his own kingdom. He secretly contacted the Israeli government and offered to join forces with Israel if Israel would help him get rid of the Iraqi forces in the territories he wished to keep for himself. Israel was unwilling to trust him, but eventually he was able to convince the Arab League to allow him to add these territories to his kingdom, and it became the Hashemite Arab Kingdom.
|The last Israeli operation in the war was operation "Uvdah" (meaning "fact"), the objective of which was to conquer the town of Eilat (called Oom-Rash-Rash by the Egyptians) and establish as a fact that Israel was in control of the Negev desert and all territories north of Eilat (except for the Gaza strip, which was under Egyptian control). Two brigades were sent to capture the town, each by a different route. Which brigade captured the town on March 9 1949?|
Negev. The Golani brigade was the other brigade that was sent to Eilat, and they arrived a day later. Alecsandroni were also part of the operation, but their objectives were different. Giv'ati, Golani and Negev still exist today, although Negev is now a Reserve Forces brigade.
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