Special Sub-Topic: Lower Limb Anatomy
|Which bone in the body has the following features and characteristics: linea aspera, intercondylar notch and an anterior bow to its shaft?|
Femur. The femur, or thigh bone, forms part of both the hip and knees joints. The head of the femur forms the ball of the ball and socket joint of the hip and the distal condyles of the femur articulate with the tibia to form the knee joint.
|What is the name given to the group of muscles found on the anterior aspect of the thigh?|
Quadriceps. The quadriceps consist of four muscles located on the front of the thigh. They are vastus lateralis, vastus medialus, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris. The primary function of the quadriceps is to extend the leg.
|The strong tendon which is located on the posterior aspect of the heel is called the calcaneal tendon.|
t. The calcaneal tendon is more commonly called the Achilles tendon and is the strongest one in the body. Despite this, it is the most frequently ruptured tendon in the body due to the enormous pressures placed on it during certain sports.
|The muscles of the lower leg are divided into three compartments: anterior, lateral and posterior. Each compartment is innervated by a different nerve. The nerve which supplies the anterior compartment is called the tibial nerve.|
f. The nerve which innervates the anterior compartment is called the deep peroneal nerve. There are four muscles within this compartment and they are called tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius. Collectively, these muscles dorsiflex the foot (flex the foot towards the knee).
|The bony protuberance on the proximal and lateral aspect of the femur is known as the greater trochanter. What is the smaller protuberance diagonally across from the greater trochanter on the medial aspect of the femur called?|
Lesser trochanter. The bony feature which runs between the greater and lesser trochanters on the anterior aspect is called the intertrochanteric line. This site is particularly susceptible to fractures, especially in elderly females, and often requires surgical intervention.
|What is the collective name for the ankle bones?|
Tarsals. The seven tarsal bones are called the talus, calcaneus, cuboid, navicular and the first, second and third cuneiform bones. The talus is the bone which forms the ankle joint by articulating with the distal tibia and fibula.
|Can you name the semicircular piece of fibrocartilage which is present in the lateral aspect of the knee joint?|
Lateral meniscus. There is another semicircular piece of fibrocartilage on the medial aspect of the knee joint called the medial meniscus. Both menisci act as shock absorbers for the knee and help to prevent wear and tear on the articular surfaces of the knee joint. Torn menisci is a very common sports injury which can result in a "locked" knee and often requires surgical intervention.
|Biceps femoris belongs to a group of muscles called the calf muscles.|
f. Biceps femoris belongs to the hamstrings which are located on the posterior aspect of the thigh. There are three hamstrings altogether, the other two being semitendinosus and semimembranosus. Collectively, the hamstrings are primarily used to flex the leg.
|What is the name of the longest muscle in the body?|
Sartorius. The sartorius originates from the anterior superior iliac spine and is inserted into the medial surface of the body of the tibia and therefore crosses both hip and knee joints. "Sartor" means tailor and the sartorius contracts when you sit in the cross-legged position of a tailor.
|How many phalanges are there in each foot?|
14. The phalanges of the foot are arranged very similarly to those of the hand. There are three phalanges in each of the toes except the big toe and there are three phalanges in each of the fingers except the thumb (proximal, middle and distal). The big toe and the thumb both have only two (proximal and distal).
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