Special Sub-Topic: Oliver Cromwell
|Where was Oliver Cromwell born?|
Huntingdon. Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on April 25th, 1599. He died on September 3rd in London.
|In what year did he become first become an MP for his home town?|
1628. Later, in 1640, he was elected MP for Cambridge.
|At which battle in October 1642, the first of the Civil War, did Cromwell command a small cavalry squadron?|
Edge Hill. Cromwell added sixty horses to the Roundhead cause when war broke out.
|At the first major battle of the English Civil War, who commanded the Parliamentary Army ?|
Earl of Essex. The Parliamentary commander at the Battle of Edge Hill was Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex. For some interesting facts About the 3rd Earl and indeed his family line try this wikipedia link:
|July 1644 saw this battle just outside York. It was a decisive Parliamentary victory securing the North. What is this battle called?|
Marston Moor. The Royalist army under Prince Rupert of the Rhine had relieved the city of York by outmanoeuvring the besiegers.
Having relieved the city, Prince Rupert led his tired and numerically inferior force out to give battle. Rupert, convinced that his foe would not attack until the morning, left the field for supper. Lord Newcastle, perhaps more dishonourably, retired to his coach for a quiet smoke. The Parliamentary army surprised the royalist totally by an attack, The Royalists lost as many as 3,000 men and their artillery train. York was forced to surrender to Parliament and the north of England was effectively lost to the king.
|Who commanded the Parliamentary forces at the the Battle of Naseby, June 1645?|
Sir Thomas Fairfax. The Royalist defeat was decisive. The Battle of Naseby effectively marked the end of Royalist chances of winning the Civil War. Although the king dragged matters out until Oxford surrendered in 1646, the royal military machine was irrevocably broken.
|The defeat of the Royalist army in June at Naseby, was followed in July by another serious defeat in Somerset. What is the name of this battle?|
Langport. At the Battle of Langport Sir Thomas Fairfax defeated the remnants of the Royalist army under Lord George Goring.
|Oliver Cromwell formed and trained a fighting force. What was it called?|
The New Model Army. Slade the Leveller, whose real name Justin Sullivan, is the lead singer in a band that takes its name from this fighting force. And interestly enough, another excellent band take their name from the Levellers. The Levellers demanded fundamental constitutional reform -a written, codified constitution, a single supreme representative body elected by universal adult male suffrage, proportional representation, and the abolition of the monarchy and of aristocratic privileges. Their ideals, far in advance of their time, were those of complete religious and political equality.
|To which country did Charles I flee after his defeats in 1645?|
Scotland. The King's secret dealings with the Scots caused him to lose all hope of further negotiations of a moderate settlement with Cromwell.
|Where was Charles I held during 1647, prior to his trial ?|
Holmby House. Historians refer to this vast Northamptonshire mansion as "Holmby House". If you want to visit the place, head for Holdenby House, however: the two names refer to one and the same place!
|In 1648 a segment of Parliament, made up of fewer than 150 members but claiming the full powers of a legitimate parliament, embarked on constitutional changes, abolishing not only the monarchy, but also the Privy Council and the House of Lords. What nickname is given to this "Parliament"?|
The Rump Parliament. In November 1648, the Long Parliament was reduced to a "Rump" Parliament by the forced removal of 110 members of Parliament by Cromwell's army, with another 160 members refusing to take their seats in opposition to this action. The remainder, barely enough for a quorum, embarked on constitutional change. The Rump Parliament dismantled the machinery of government, most of which was still loyal to the king. The Rump Parliament abolished the monarchy, the Privy Council, the Courts of Exchequer and Admiralty and the House of Lords. England was ruled by the Rump Parliament and an executive Council of State, headed by Cromwell.
|On April 21, 1653, Cromwell ended the sitting of Parliament. How?|
At sword point. Cromwell ended the Rump Parliament with great indignity on April 21, 1653, ordering the house cleared at the point of a sword. It was on this occasion that he said to the Rump Parliament: "You have sat here too long for any good that you have done. Depart, I say, and let us have done with you. In the name of God, go!" These words were quoted by the Conservative MP, Leo Amery, in May 1940 when attacking Neville Chamberlain's government.
|What title did Cromwell adopt in 1653?|
Lord Protector of the Realm. In December 1653, he became head of state as Lord Protector, though he held that office under a written constitution which ensured that he would share political power with parliament and a council. He was Lord Protector for almost five years.
|When did Cromwell die?|
September 1658. When Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660, some of his supporters had Cromwell's body dug up and hanged(!) from a gallows as a traitor. His remains were later buried at the foot of the gibbet.
|Whom did Oliver Cromwell name as his successor?|
His son. The Lord Protector died on September 3, 1658, naming his son Richard as successor. With Cromwell's death, the Commonwealth foundered and the monarchy was restored only two years later.
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