Special Sub-Topic: Organic Functional Groups and Classifications
|What organic compounds are characterized by the general formula CnH2n+2?|
alkanes. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons and are the simplest hydrocarbon species. The carbons in alkanes have four single bonds. Methane, propane, butane and hexane are alkanes.
|Which organic compounds are characterized as an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon double bond?|
alkenes. Alkenes have the formula CnH2n. Ethylene and propylene are two common alkenes.
|What is the name for a carbon that is double bonded to an oxygen?|
carbonyl. A carbonyl is common to many other functional groups in organic chemistry. Aldehydes, ketones and esters contain a carbonyl.
|Which of the following functional groups do not have a carbonyl group?|
Amines. Amines are characterized by having a carbon-nitrogen bond. Amides have a carbonyl-nitrogen bond. Aldehydes have a carbonyl-hydrogen bond. Esters have a carbonyl-oxygen bond.
|Which organic compounds are characterized by having a simple carbon-hydroxide functional group?|
alcohol. Alcohols are characterized by the formula R-OH. Alcohols are in simple everyday household items such as rubbing alcohol and alcoholic beverages.
|Which of these organic functional groups contains the element sulfur?|
thiols. Thiols contain a carbon-sulfuryl bond. Thiols are also characterized by their strong odor.
|Which functional group has a carbon-nitrogen double bond?|
imine. An imine has a carbon-nitrogen double bond. An amine has a carbon-nitrogen single bond and a nitrile has a carbon-nitrogen triple bond. A nitro group has an oxygen-nitrogen double bond.
|Hückel's rule determines whether a ringed hydrocarbon will have aromatic properties. Which is not a criteria used in Hückel's rule for a simple aromatic hydrocarbon?|
the hydrocarbon contains at least one nitrogen or oxygen. The three criteria for Hückel's rule are the hydrocarbon has 4n+2 pi electrons, the hydrocarbon is planar and cyclic and the hydrocarbon is fully conjugated. An aromatic hydrocarbon isn't required to contain nitrogen or oxygen. Some aromatic hydrocarbons do in fact contain nitrogen and/or oxygen such as trinitrotoulene (ie TNT.)
|Amino acids are important biochemical compounds. Which organic functional groups do amino acids contain?|
both amine and carboxylic acid. Amino acids are molecules which contain both a carboxylic acid and an amine group. Amino acids are used for building protiens and metabolism.
|An acid anhydride can be hydrolyzed into a carboxylic acid and an aldehyde.|
False. When an acid anhydride is hydrolyzed (split by adding a water molecule), it becomes two carboxylic acids.
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