Special Sub-Topic: Sugar Sugar
|What sugar is table sugar?|
Sucrose. White table sugar is the disaccharide sucrose. It is composed of two monosaccharides: a molecule of glucose bonded to a molecule of fructose.
|Of what sugars is honey primarily composed?|
Fructose & glucose. Honey is about 70% fructose and glucose, but also contains some maltose and sucrose. Lactose is more likely to be found in milk. Ribose and deoxyribose sugars are found in nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA respectively.
|What molecules are isomers of glucose? (Isomers are molecules that have the same chemical formula but different arrangements of the atoms in the molecule.)|
Fructose & galactose. Fructose and galactose are both 6-carbon monosaccharides, like glucose, with the chemical formula C6 H12 O6. Ribose and deoxyribose are both 5-carbon sugars. Sucrose and lactose are both disaccharides or two monosaccharides bonded together. Starch and cellulose are both polymers of monosaccharides, called polysaccharides, which are long chains of simple sugars bonded together.
|What process creates simple sugars?|
Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis creates simple sugar (and oxygen) from water and carbon dioxide with the addition of energy in the form of sunlight. Cellular respiration is essentially the reverse reaction of photosynthesis, creating energy, water, and carbon dioxide by oxidizing glucose. Fermentation is a process that creates energy from a simple sugar without the addition of oxygen. Condensation reactions bond simple sugars together while releasing water.
|In the food industry, by what name is the monosaccharide glucose also known?|
Dextrose. Dextrose is a common name for glucose. Fructose is another simple sugar, an isomer of glucose. Sucrose is a disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose bonded together. Deoxyribose is the sugar found in DNA.
|Of what molecules is the milk sugar lactose composed?|
Glucose & galactose. Lactose is composed of one glucose bonded to a galactose molecule. Glucose and fructose together create a molecule of the disaccharide sucrose, while two glucose create maltose.
|What is the name for the disaccharide malt sugar?|
Maltose. Malt sugar, composed of two molecules of glucose bonded together, forms maltose. Galactose is a simple 6-carbon sugar. A heptose is a 7-carbon sugar. Honey is composed of a small amount of maltose, but primarily contains the simple sugars fructose and glucose.
|What is a chain of about 3 to 10 simple sugars called?|
Oligosaccharide. The terms triose through decose refer to the number of carbon atoms in one simple sugar, not to the number of simple sugars bonded together. Deoxyribose is a type of simple sugar that had 5-carbon molecules. A disaccharide is two simple sugars together. An oligosaccharide refers to a short polysaccharide containing three to ten monosaccharides.
|By what name is fructose also known?|
Levulose. Fructose may also be called levulose. Fructose is an isomer of glucose or dextrose. Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose.
|What is the primary source of energy in all living systems?|
Carbohydrates. Glucose, with other carbohydrates, is the basic source of energy in all living systems. Proteins and lipids (fats) do provide some energy but are generally converted to glucose to do so.
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