Special Sub-Topic: The Small But Mighty Cell
|Which of the following devices would allow you to observe not only a living cell, but also the organelles inside?|
Light microscope. Both the scanning electron microscope and the powerful light microscope may be used to view organelles, however, the process used to prepare a slide for viewing in the electron microscope kills the cell. Living cells may only be viewed by a light microscope.
|Who came up with the name 'cell' to describe the smallest living biological structure?|
Robert Hooke. In 1665, Robert Hooke coined the name 'cell' from the Greek cellular, which means "room", when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms in which monks lived.
|What is the term for "little organs" within the cell?|
Organelles. The organelles of an organism vary between plant, animal, and prokaryotic cells. Organelles all work together within the cell, just as organs within the human body work together.
|What are the power generators of the cell called?|
Mitochondria and chloroplasts. The generators of the cell are the mitochondria and chloroplasts. Animal cells don't have chloroplasts, so the task of making energy for the cell falls on the mitochondria, which takes substances such as sugar and converts it into energy for the cell. In plant cells, the chloroplasts convert sunlight into sugars, and the mitochondria takes that and converts it into energy for the cell.
|When a life form has cells which are organized by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton, it is known as which of the following?|
Eukaryote. Eukaryotic cells make up life forms such as plants, animals, fungi, and protists. They are usually about ten times the size of prokaryotic cells, which are not as organized as eukaryotic cells, and do not have membrane-bound structures. The monocotyledon is one of the two major flowering groups, and I just made up euphite.
|In what part of the cell does the electron transport chain (ETC) take place?|
Mitochondria. The electron transport chain takes place across the cristae of the mitochondria.
|Which of the following does not make up the energy used by cells known as ATP?|
Water. Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, consists of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates. When the last bond of the three phosphates is broken, ATP becomes ADP, or adenosine diphosphate.
|Do all cells come from preexisting cells?|
Yes. According to the cell theory, all cells come from preexisting cells through the process of reproduction.
|What is one thing that all prokaryotic cells lack?|
Nuclear membrane. All prokaryotic cells lack a nuclear membrane and most intracellular organelles which are found in eukaryotic cells. Ribosomes are one exception, however, since they are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
|Which of the following is a prokaryotic cell?|
Bacteria. Bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, which causes the bubonic plague, are prokaryotic, while all protists, fungi, plants, and animals are eukaryotic.
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