Interesting Questions, Facts and Information
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Interesting Questions, Facts, and Information
War of the Roses
|In 1399 Richard II was usurped by this man, which led to the establishing of the House of Lancaster, and ultimately to the Wars of the Roses. Who was this usurper?||Wars of the Roses
|What led to the falling-out between Edward IV and his staunchest supporter, Richard, Earl of Warwick, known as the Kingmaker?||Wars of the Roses
Edward married Elizabeth Woodville, thwarting Neville's plans to marry him to a French noblewoman..
1487. This was the battle of Stoke, which Henry VII fought against the impostor Lambert Simnel. The battle of Bosworth field, in 1485, is the battle at which Henry defeated the then-king, Richard III.
|The battle of Stoke Field is usually considered the final battle of the War of the Roses. Henry Tudor's forces overcame the forces of a pretender to the throne. Who was this boy claiming to be king ?||The War of the Roses
Lambert Simnel. Lambert claimed to be Edward, Earl of Warwick and nephew of Edward IV and was crowned King Edward VI in Dublin. It is said Henry Tudor considered him harmless and employed Lambert later in his kitchens.
|The Battle of Tewkesbury fought in 1471 effectively ended one period of the War of the Roses, being a decisive Yorkist victory. Who led the ill fated Lancastrian Army ?||The War of the Roses
Duke of Somerset. The Duke of Somerset led a numerically superior Lancastrian force at the battle and tried to outflank the Yorkist army. When this failed and the Lancastrian army was attacked in the centre it crumbled.
Perhaps the most grievous lost to the Lancastrian force was the death of Edward Prince of Wales.
|At the battle of Barnet in April 1471 a major figure on the Wars of the Roses was killed. Known as the "kingmaker", what was the real name of the Earl of Warwick?||The War of the Roses
Richard Neville. Referred to as "the kingmaker", Richard Neville wielded considerable power. The battle was marked by two unfortunate mistakes which contributed to the Lancastrian defeat. Firstly, the Yorkist army by luck drew up in the dark closer than expected to Warwick's army causing their artillery to over shoot. Secondly, in the fog of battle in the morning, Warwick's centre and left flanks mistook each other for enemey troops or traitors and set upon each other.
Battle of Wakefield. Richard led his troops out of his fortress at Sandal Castle and, perhaps over confidently attacked the Royalist forces. He was defeated and killed, and his head was put on a pike by the victorious Lancastrian armies.
|Richard Duke of York had a thin claim to the Crown and tried through force of arms to take it, he never actually got his hands on the crown. But which title did he attain? ||The War of the Roses
Lord Protector. Richard's father, the Earl of Cambridge, had been executed for treason in 1415. In 1452, Richard Duke of York was made Lord Protector, but had to give up this position with the King's recovery from insanity and the birth of an heir, Edward, Prince of Wales, the following year.
|Henry VI had a famous or infamous wife, depending on your point of view. Who was this powerful woman?||The War of the Roses
Margaret of Anjou. Margaret often led the Lancastrian forces during the Wars of the Roses and is said to have dictated strategy. Henry is often seen as a weak king, ill suited to the role of a medieval monarch. Margaret was born in March 1430.
|In 1459 outside Ludlow, at Ludford bridge, a key member of the Yorkist forces defected to the Lancastrian cause, leading to a full scale retreat. Who was this defector?||The War of the Roses
Andrew Trollope. Andrew Trollope was the captain of the Calais troops. It is rumoured that that night, Andrew Trollope deserted from Warwick, taking the Calais garrison and the Yorkist plan of battle over to the king.
|Hostilities broke out in 1455. Which is considered to be the first major battle of the War of the Roses?||The War of the Roses
St Albans. The king, Henry VI, marched northwards from London, intending to halt the advance of the Duke of York's forces. His army was defeated on May 22nd 1455 and the Queen and her young son Edward fled into exile.
|1487 - John Earl of Lincoln was the leader of the rebels at the Battle of Stoke, where he lost his life. How was he related to Richard III?||Battles of the Wars of the Roses
nephew. John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, was the oldest son of Richard III's sister Elizabeth, Duchess of Suffolk. Although never officially recognised as such, after the death of Richard's son Edward Prince of Wales, Lincoln was seen as his heir presumptive.
Margaret Beaufort. Thomas Stanley's first wife was Richard's cousin, Alianor Nevill. After her death, he married Margaret Beaufort.
Princess of Wales. Anne Nevill, younger daughter of Richard Earl of Warwick, was married to Edward Prince of Wales who was killed either during or immediately after the Battle of Tewkesbury.
Losecote Field . The rebels, led by Henry Lord Fitzhugh, discarded their armour so fast in the defeat and rout that the battle earned the nickname Losecote Field.
John Conyers. John Conyers had been a staunch supporter of the Nevills for some years, serving as Steward of Middleham Castle and marrying Alice, the daughter of William Nevill, Lord Fauconberg.
Henry Beaufort Duke of Somerset. Somerset, who had briefly been in the confidence of Edward IV, defected after a short time and returned to support Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou. He was taken prisoner by John Nevill after Hexham and beheaded.
John Nevill Lord Montagu. John Nevill led the Yorkist forces to victory at Hedgeley Moor.
Thomas Nevill Bastard of Salisbury. Though this is just about the only mention of him, Hall says that Thomas Nevill, illegitimate brother of Warwick, was killed at Ferrybridge.
A parhelion. A parhelion is an optical illusion where it appears there are three suns in the sky. Edward Earl of March used this to convince his troops that God and the Trinity were on their side. He later adopted the Sun in Splendour as a personal badge.
John Nevill Lord Montagu. John Nevill was captured after the second Battle of St Albans and imprisoned, with several others, in York when Queen Margaret led her army in retreat to the north of England. He was freed after the Battle of Towton.
Lynched by a mob at Pontefract Castle.. The Earl of Salisbury survived the Battle of Wakefield and was taken to Pontefract Castle where he was to be placed in captivity. Possibly with the connivance of Robert Holland, Bastard of Exeter, he was seized by the mob and beheaded - also possibly by Holland.
It could have been any of these reasons.. While there is no proof that York was betrayed, and it is doubtful that he was quick tempered enough to respond to insults, either of these reasons could conceivably be correct. The most likely reason (though also by no means proven) was that he rode out to protect a group of returning foragers.
The Great Seal of England. George Nevill, Salisbury's youngest son, became chancellor of England for the first time in 1460 at the age of 28. He continued in the role until personally sacked by Edward IV in 1465. In 1470, his brother, Warwick, reinstated him during the Readeption of Henry VI. ('Readeption' is the recognized historical term).
Alice Montacute Countess of Salisbury. Alice Montacute may well have been at Ludlow Castle and left at the same time as her husband, son and the Duke of York. She was certainly in Ireland shortly after that. It isn't clear from the sources just why Alice was attainted, but it was quite possibly for raising troops on her husband's behalf.
Andrew Trollope. Although the Calais garrison were loyal to Warwick, Captain of Calais, they were not prepared to take up arms against their king, Henry VI. When Henry offered pardons to all who would come to his side, Trollope led a sizeable number away from York's camp, leaving him sorely under-defended. The Yorkists fled, York and his son Edmund, Earl of Rutland to Ireland, while Warwick, Salisbury and York's oldest son, Edward Earl of March, fled to Calais.
Thomas and John Nevill. Salisbury's middle sons, Thomas and John, were captured after Blore Heath and imprisoned in Chester Castle. They were released after the Battle of Northampton.
Somerset, Northumberland, Clifford. Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset; Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland and Lord Thomas Clifford, all fighting on the side of Henry VI, were killed in the battle. Somerset, and possibly Northumberland, were targetted by York and his Nevill allies, the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick, though Clifford most likely died defending the barricades leading into the town.
Anne Nevill. Richard III was married to Anne Nevill, who died in 1485, just months before he met his own end at the Battle of Bosworth.
|For years after her brother, Richard III's, death at the Battle of Bosworth, Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, did anything she could to support rebellion against Henry VII. What pejorative name did he refer to her by?||Women of the Wars of the Roses
diabolical duchess. Henry VII referred to Margaret as the diabolical duchess.