Special Sub-Topic: Aerobic Respiration
|What is the definition of a metabolic pathway?|
A series of reactions controlled by enzymes within a cell.. There are many metabolic pathways in the human body. Aerobic respiration only covers a couple. Others include the ornithine cycle, build up of muscle from protein, and the breakdown of lipids.
|What is the name of the first enzyme involved in glycolysis in the presence of glucose?|
Hexokinase.. Glucose is phoshorylased by the enzyme hexonkinase (named as a result of glucose being a six carbon sugar).
|What does NAD stand for?|
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide.. NAD+ is the electron carrier that is reduced and later is incorporated into the electron transport chain.
|Which enzyme has been credited as the key regulator of the rate of glycolyis?|
Phosphofructokinase.. Phosphofructokinase activity increases as ADP abundance does, and decreases as ADP abundance does also. Hexokinase catalyses the first step of glycolysis but its activity remains more constant than Phosphofructokinase's. Pyruvate kinase catalyses the final stage of glycolysis. Glucagon has no direct influence on glycolytic rate. It breaks down glycogen stores into glucose when blood sugar levels are low.
|After the Link reaction, a series of further reactions take place. What is this series NOT known as?|
The acetyl coenzyme reduction cycle.. Described by Hans Krebs, citrate is the first intermediate in this cycle.
|Which of the following is not a product of the Cycle that follows the Link Reaction?|
NAD+.. NAD+ is not formed; it is reduced into NADH. Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP) is almost immediately converted into ATP. CO2 is given off, and FAD is reduced to FADH2.
|Which is the first proton pump in the electron transport chain?|
The NADH dehydrogenase complex.. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the chain.
|What is the name given to the movement of protons through the ATP Synthase complex and into the matrix of the mitochondria?|
Chemiosmosis.. Also labelled the 'proton motive force', this is achieved by the build up of an electrochemical gradient, due to the formation of an abundance of positive protons on one side of the inner membrane and the build up of negative electrons on the other. The resulting force is very similar to a lightning spark, on a much smaller scale. ATP is formed using this energy.
|What does ATP stand for?|
Adenosine triphosphate.. ATP is the currency of energy that the body uses. When energy is needed, the body hydrolyses ATP (requiring H2O). This removes one phosphate from the triphosphate molecule, releasing a large amount of free energy. The products of this breakdown are adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi).
|Cyanide prevents aerobic respiration from continuing by binding to what?|
Cytochrome oxidase complex.. Cyanide is a deadly poison that binds to the cytochrome oxidase complex, preventing oxidative phosphorylation. Unless treatment is administered quickly, the individual will only be able to respire anaerobically and will eventually die.
Did you find these entries particularly interesting, or do you have comments / corrections to make? Let the author know!
Send the author a thank you or
Submit a correction