Special Sub-Topic: Australian Explorers
|Which Spanish navigator sailed through the strait which separates Australia and Papua New Guinea and had it named after him?|
Luis Vaez de Torres. Luis Vaez de Torres sailed through the Torres Strait in 1606. Previous to his discovery, only Indonesian traders had visited the northern coastal area of Australia to trade with the local Aboriginals.
|Which Dutchman, in 1606, sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria?|
Willem Janszoon. Willem Janszoon, just a couple of months after de Torres had discoverd the Torres Strait, sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria aboard the 'Duyfken' and mapped the Cape York Peninsula.
|Which Dutchman explored the west coast of Australia in 1616, near what is now known as Shark Bay?|
Dirck Hartog. Dirck Hartog, aboard the ship 'Eendracht', landed on the west coast of Australia on 25 October 1616. For posterity, Hartog nailed an engraved pewter plate to a wooden post erected at the landing site, now known as Cape Inscription, on Dirk Hartog Island. Unimpressed by the barren and dry land, he departed two days later!
|Who discovered Arnhem Land in 1623?|
Jan Carstensz. Jan Carstensz mapped and named the main features of the north western coast. He also described several armed encounters with Aborigines on the northern coast of Australia.
|Who circumnavigated Australia in 1642?|
Abel Tasman. Abel Tasman circumnavigated not only Australia, between 1642 and 1643, he was the first European to sight Tasmania and New Zealand! At this time, Australia was christened 'New Holland'.
However, Tasman missed the Torres Strait and circumnavigated both Australia and New Guinea. The first person to circumnavigate Australia itself was Matthew Flinders in 1802-3.
|In 1699, who landed on the west coast of Australia?|
William Dampier. William Dampier arrived in Australia on 17 August 1699 aboard the 'Roebuck'. He anchored his ship between Dirk Hartog Island and Peron Peninsula and, noticing the abundance of sharks, named the area 'Shark Bay'. He became the first Englishman to walk on Australian soil! The 'Roebuck' sank on its return voyage to England.
|Who circumnavigated Tasmania in 1798?|
Matthew Flinders. An English explorer, naval officer and navigator, Matthew Flinders circumnavigated Australia and mapped much of its coastline. He and George Bass were the first Europeans to realize that Tasmania was an island, after they sailed around it!
|Who Captained the First Fleet that arrived in Australia in 1788?|
Captain Arthur Phillip. On 18 January 1788, Captain Arthur Phillip entered Botany Bay with a flotilla of nine ships sailing into Botany Bay over three days, while the local Aborigines watched their arrival! On 25 January, Phillip sailed to Port Jackson and went ashore.
|In 1788, which Frenchman arrived in Botany Bay?|
La Perouse. La Perouse, with two ships, arrived in Botany Bay. Early in February, the French fired on Aborigines at Botany Bay.
|Captain James Cook surveyed Australia in what year?|
1770. In 1770, Captain James Cook charted the east coast of Australia and claimed the 'Great Southern Land' for England. On 29 April, aboard the 'Endeavour', Cook entered Botany Bay. The 'Endeavour' was damaged after coming aground on the Great Barrier Reef and, with the ship repaired near the site of Cooktown and the mouth of the Endeavor River, Cook sailed off and up through the strait between Australia and New Guinea, reaching Batavia in October 1770, where about 30 members of the crew died from malaria!
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