Special Sub-Topic: Britain: Medieval History
|Which English king was captured at the first Battle of St. Albans (1455)?|
Henry VI. This was the first battle in the Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York and the Earl of Warwick fought Henry VI, Buckingham and Somerset in the streets of St. Albans.
|Which Scottish Earl was murdered by King James II of Scotland at the king's dinner table?|
Earl of Douglas. King James II invited the earl and his brother to dine, and presented them with a stag's head, a symbol of death, and promptly had them executed.
|Which island did Richard I conquer on his way to the Holy Land in the 3rd Crusade 1190's?|
Cyprus. Richard I conquered this prosperous island from a Byzantine prince who ruled the island. A stragetic island for the later crusades, it was ruled by the Lusginans.
|In 1453 the Earl of Shrewsbury, John Talbot, lost his life and the battle at Castillon. Which French city is close to the battlefield?|
Bordeaux. This was the last serious attempt to recover English lands in France after the disasterous losses of 1445-50 to the French due to the imcompetence of Henry VI and his advisers.
|Which Scottish King fell to his death at Kinghorn, Fife, from his horse in 1286, thus leading to the Succession Crisis in Scotland?|
Alexander III. The death of Alexander III led to a succesion crisis, with three main contenders, Comyn, Bruce and Hastings. Scotland couldn't decide and asked Edward I to decide as outside neutral source. Edward I had different ideas, and through a sequence of events led to his invasion of Scotland, Wallace's revolt and Bruce's accesion to the throne.
|Where did Henry IV go on a crusade before becoming king?|
Lithuania. Before Henry of Bolingbroke became or even thought of becoming king, he went on a crusade like many other English noblemen, in Lithuania, which was at that time in the later 14th century, pagan. He went with the Teutonic Knights from Königsberg.
|Richard, Duke of York was killed in 1460 at which battle in the Wars of the Roses?|
Wakefield. At the height of the wars, the Yorkist leader was killed at the battle of Wakefield, his son, Edward IV carried on the leadership of the Yorkist party and later became king after deposing Henry VI.
|William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, served in the retinue of how many kings?|
4. William Marshall served Henry II, Richard I, John, Regent for Henry III and was decisive in forcing the French out of England during the Barons' Wars.
|Which brother of Robert the Bruce attempted to become King of Ireland and died in the process in 1318?|
Edward. Edward, supported by Robert, fought in Ireland at the beginning of the 14th century to become king in Ireland. Robert used it as a distraction to the English who were also in Ireland.
|Apart from Richard I, which other medieval English king went on a crusade?|
Edward I. Edward I went on crusade while his father was still king, Henry III.
|Henry 'Hotspur' Percy, son of the 1st Earl of Northumberland, lost the battle of Otterburn 'Chevy Chase', to whom in 1388?|
Earl of Douglas. This was more of a feud that led to a battle than a fight bewtween the Scots and the English, and it led to Hostpur's defeat and ransom. Douglas died.
|What was the name of the Dark Ages British Kingdom centred around Carlisle in Cumbria?|
Rheged. Rheged was one of British kingdoms that arose around the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions, and it continued to exist till around the late 7th century. The other three were other British kingdoms, Deira in Yorkshire, Bernicia in Northumberland and Goddodin in Lothian, Scotland.
|King Stephen of Blois of England's brother was Bishop of which English diocese in the 12th century?|
Winchester. Henry Blois was an ardent supporter of Stephen during the civil war with Mathilda and later Henry II, and was bishop of the country's wealthiest diocese.
|Which island did Philip Augustus of France and Richard I Lionheart winter on during their trip to the Holy Land and the 3rd Crusade?|
Sicily. These two kings wintered and quarrelled at Messina in Sicily on their way to the Holy Land. Richard also fought with the Sicilain king Tancred, forcing him to pay money for a defaulted dowry and some ships.
|Where is Henry I of England buried?|
Reading. Henry founded a magnificent Abbey at Reading and was buried there after his death, the only king to do so. After Henry III, all were buried at Wesminster or Windsor.
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