Special Sub-Topic: Medical Pyramid
|Mouth prop, mouth mirror, Novocaine, drill.
With which of these specialists are these items associated?|
Dentist. These are things you'll see in the dentist's office.
Mouth props/bite blocks are used to keep the mouth open during a procedure if the patient is having difficulty doing so or is sedated.
Dental mirrors are used to enhance viewing of the teeth, especially in hard to reach areas.
Dental drills are used when treating dental caries. They are used to remove the decayed portion of a tooth before applying dental filling.
Novocaine is a local anesthetic. It's used to numb the area of operation to reduce discomfort.
|Missed periods, nausea and vomiting, breast tenderness and frequent urination.
These features are classified as which of the following?|
Possible signs of pregnancy. The signs of pregnancy may be classified as possible or presumptive signs, probable signs, and positive signs.
Possible signs include : in addition to ones already mentioned, strange cravings, stretch marks and fatigue. These are the signs usually detected by the client which leads to a 'suspicion' of pregnancy. However, missed periods, for example, may be due to stress, anemia, or menopause. Frequent urination may be due to diabetes, urinary tract infections and tumors. Nausea and vomiting can result from food poisoning, indigestion, emotional stress and infection, therefore, these aren't positive signs of pregnancy.
Positive signs of pregnancy are those signs which constitute a definite diagnosis of pregnancy. They include: Fetal heart tones, ultrasound or x-ray detection of pregnancy.
Probable signs of pregnancy include: abdominal enlargement, uterine changes, Braxton Hicks contraction and positive pregnancy test by the physician. These signs are often detected by an examiner. There is a high probability that the client is pregnant when these features are present. Differential diagnoses include tumors, obesity and hydatidiform mole.
|Full cervical dilatation, involuntary pushing, crowning and birth of the baby.
These are collectively associated with which stage of labor?|
second stage. First stage of labor extends from the onset of true labor contractions to full cervical dilatation. There may be a "show" consisting of mucus and blood as the cervical plug becomes dislodged. In some cases, the membranes rupture resulting in leaking of fluid. Contractions progressively increase in frequency, duration and intensity.
The second stage extends from full cervical dilatation to birth of the baby. Stretching of the pelvic floor muscles is associated with an uncontrollable urge to push.
The third stage extends from birth of the baby to delivery of the placenta.
The fourth stage is the time immediately after birth, usually the first hour. A fourth stage helps us to keep in focus that the mother is still at risk of bleeding and other complications and hence vigilance is necessary. Bonding is encouraged during this stage as well.
|Basophils, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes
Into which category of cells do these fall?|
White blood cells. There are various types of white blood cells, for example, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. These are further classified as granulocytes and agranulocytes.
Granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils, whereas monocytes and lymphocytes are agranulocytes. Each group of white blood cells works in different ways to provide protection for the body.
Unlike the white blood cells, mature red blood cells usually have no nuclei. They are concerned mainly with the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
|Electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, fluid overload and anuria.
These clinical features are all associated with which disease condition?|
End stage renal disease (ESRD). The kidneys are primarily responsible for several functions. These include removal of excess water and certain wastes from the body as well as electrolyte and acid-base balance. In addition, the kidneys help in control of blood pressure and production of red blood cells and vitamin D, which is essential for strong, healthy bones. Renal failure takes place in stages. When a person has End-stage renal disease, urinary output is very scant or completely stopped. Hypertension, anemia and bone problems may be present. The client may have a range of symptoms which include feelings of fatigue, dryness and itching of the skin, nausea, headaches, loss of appetite, drowsiness, confusion, bone pain, muscular cramps, amenorrhea and a host of other complaints which vary from person to person. Treatment is in the form of dialysis or renal transplant. Additionally, some people may require transfusions, extra calcium and vitamin D and phosphate binders.
|Partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pH, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation
These are components of which of the following studies?|
Arterial blood gas (ABG). An ABG analysis is done on blood obtained from an artery. It reflects the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood and indicates whether the blood is acid, alkaline or neutral, based on its hydrogen ion concentration (pH). Under normal circumstances, blood is slightly alkaline, having a pH between 7.35-7.45.
The air we breathe in is not pure oxygen, but a mixture of gases which include nitrogen and carbon dioxide as well. Each gas in the mixture exerts a pressure known as its partial pressure. The combination of pressures constitutes the total pressure of gases in the mixture.
Pressures are important as they influence movement of a gas from one area to the next by the process of diffusion. The partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) measures the pressure of dissolved oxygen in the blood. The normal range is 80-100 mm Hg. It gives us an idea of how well oxygen is being absorbed from the lungs.
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) measures the pressure of CO2 in the blood. It gives us an idea of how well the body is removing carbon dioxide. The normal range is 35-45 mm Hg.
Other components of a blood gas analysis include the oxygen saturation (SaO2) which deals with the attachment of oxygen to hemoglobin in the red blood cells, and bicarbonate level (HO3-) which reflects the involvement of the kidneys in excreting or holding bicarbonate.
ABG studies serve as a good guide for the management of patients with respiratory problems or any other disorder which may cause acid-base imbalance, for example renal disease and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
|1.Frequent voiding and nocturia
2.Hesitancy, especially initiating a flow of urine
3.Dribbling (overflow incontinence)
4.Diminished force and flow of the urinary stream
This list of features is characteristic of which health problem?|
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The prostate gland is located below the urinary bladder. It encircles the urethra, which is a tube extending from the base of the bladder to the tip of the penis. As a man ages, the gland undergoes an abnormal increase in the number of cells (hyperplasia), hence the gland itself increases in size (hypertrophy). As the gland continues to grow, it gradually encroaches on the lumen of the urethra. This of course, interferes with the outflow of urine from the bladder and the above mentioned clinical features present. Incomplete emptying of the bladder causes stasis and subsequent urine and hence urinary tract infection in some men with BPH. However, a straightforward case of UTI is not associated with outflow features such as reduction in the force of the urinary stream and dribbling. In addition, UTI is associated with a burning sensation on urination and the urine may have an odor.
|Sedentary life style, calf tenderness, redness and swelling of the leg
Which medical problem is associated with these features?|
Deep venous thrombosis. Deep venous thrombosis is a condition in which a clot (thrombus) forms in one of the deep veins in the body. It commonly affects the veins of the legs. Factors which predispose to DVT include prolonged sitting or lying in bed, recent surgery, use of the contraceptive pills, obesity and cigarette smoking. DVT is significant because the clot may become dislodged and travel to the lungs, resulting in a pulmonary embolism (PE), which can be fatal.
A person should seek medical attention if they experience swelling, increased warmth, discoloration and pain to one leg. A Doppler ultrasound of the affected extremity confirms the diagnosis.
|Chest compressions, rescue breaths, defibrillation
These are all components of which of the following?|
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation consists of lifesaving techniques employed when some-one's heart stops beating or they aren't breathing. According to the American Heart Association's revised guidelines in 2010, the sequence of rescue activities has changed from ABC (airway, breathing, circulation), to CAB (circulation, airway, breathing). This is to ensure that chest compressions begin early to restore circulation to vital organs and minimize brain injury.
|Pregnancy, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count
Which medical diagnosis correlates with these?|
HELLP Syndrome. HELLP is an acronym as follows:
H - hemolysis (a term for the destruction of red blood cells)
EL - elevated liver enzymes
LP - low platelet.
The condition occurs in late pregnancy, usually in women who have pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).
Symptoms include pain in the upper abdomen, especially in the right upper quadrant where the liver is located, headaches, nausea and vomiting as well as vision problems such as blurring and other alterations in vision. Because of danger to the mother, the baby is often delivered, even if premature.
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