Special Sub-Topic: Name That Fruit!
|Which of these is not a berry?|
strawberry. A berry is a fleshy fruit with a few to many seeds. A strawberry is an aggregate fruit formed of many ovaries (the part of the flower in which the seeds develop) on the receptacle (the piece of stem on which the other flower parts grow) which has become the fleshy red "fruit". Usually, the receptacle is not a part of the fruit, but in this case it is so closely associated with the matured ovaries as to be considered part of the fruit. The fruitlets (composed of its individual matured ovary and its seed) are what we commonly call the seeds. The fruitlets are called achenes, a kind of hard fruit loosely attached to the seed.
|What kind of fruit is an orange?|
hesperidium. A hesperidium is a specialized or modified berry with an oily, leathery skin.
|What kind of fruit is a pumpkin?|
pepo. A pepo is a specialized berry with a thick, tough rind. Since it is composed of the receptacle (which surrounded the ovary in the flower, in which case the ovary is referred to as inferior) it is an accesory fruit.
|What kind of fruit is a tomato?|
true berry. A true berry is a thin skinned fruit.
|What kind of fruit is an apple?|
pome. A pome is a fleshy accessory fruit with a papery or cartilaginous core. A drupe is a stone fruit like a peach, olive, etc.
|Not all fruits are fleshy at maturity. What kind of fruit dries and splits down both sides without a central partition at maturity?|
legume. These would include beans, peas, and peanuts.
|What is the difference between a legume and a silique?|
a silique has seeds attached to a central partition. This is the fruit of the mustard family. Grow some radishes in your garden and let a few bloom and go to seeds and you will see them. Or find some wild mustard family representatives which have small, cross shaped flowers.
|Which of these splits open along only one side?|
follicle. A milkweed is an example of a follicle. Schizocarps separate into two (or more) seeds enclosed in their own pericarps (the layer composed of matured ovarian tissue). Carrots, filarees, and cheesemallows are examples of schizocarps.
|What is a winged fruit like a maple whirligig called?|
samara & a samara & samaras. These inlude ashes, elms, and tree of heaven. Pine whirligigs are seeds because the wing is composed of the seed coat, not the pericarp (matured ovary tissue). In fact, pines are gymnosperms which lack fruits.
|Which of these is not a fruit?|
yew berry. The fleshy berry of the yew is an aril formed from non-ovarian tissue. Yew is a gymnosperm, having naked seeds not enclosed by the aril. The aril, however, (not the poisonous seed) is edible. The grain of wheat is a caryopsis, a kind of fruit with the pericarp (matured ovary) fused with the seed coat, as are all grains. The acorn is a true nut, a one-seeded fruit with a very hard pericarp usually enclosed in a husk or cup-like involucre. A pineapple is an aggregate fruit composed of the ovaries of many flowers fused on a common stem (the core).
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