Special Sub-Topic: Road to Canadian Confederation
|Which of these was *not* a decisive factor in encouraging Confederation?|
A desire to become independent from Britain. The political deadlock in the United Province of Canada lead to an increasing interest in broadening the political base of the union. In 1864 there was conference called to discuss a Maritime union for trading purposes and Canada requested the right to participate in order to present the idea of a broader union. The Fenians, based in the United States, had raided Canada and it was felt that a union would present a stronger defence against the United States. It was also believed that Britain would be more likely to commit financial support to defend a united Canada against any United States aggression.
|Which of these was not a conference which discussed Confederation?|
Toronto Conference 1865. The Governor of Canada requested that the delegates convening in Charlottetown to discuss a maritime union permit representatives from Canada to attend. They were allowed to do so and almost immediately the concept of a maritime union was dropped in favour of a wider Confederation. The Conference adjourned to reconvene in Quebec and later in London to put the final touches on Confederation.
There was no Toronto Conference.
|How many colonies united to form Canada in 1867?|
3. Although most people will undoubtedly say 4, it is only 3. The United Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick united to form the new Dominion. Immediately after union, the United Province divided into two separate provinces, Ontario and Quebec - so three colonies became four provinces.
|Which Father of Confederation was called the "Lion of Quebec"? (Hint - an Ontario highway is named after him)|
Georges Etienne Cartier. A lawyer, Langevin studied law under Cartier. Elected to the legislature he was Solicitor-General and Postmaster-General in the government of the United Province of Canada. After Confederation he served as Secretary of State and later as Minister of Public Works. Due to corruption in his department, of which he was cleared, he resigned from Cabinet. McGee, born in Ireland, was a newpaperman and writer. He supported the British connection and earned the enmity of the Fenians. Cartier was Macdonald's lieutenant in Quebec. Cartier believed that the language and culture of the French Canadians could best be preserved as part a united Canada. During Macdonald's illness in 1870, he assumed leadership for four months. Due to ill health, he resigned in 1872 and died in London in 1873.
|Who served as the host at the Quebec Conference of 1864 when the 72 resolutions which formed the basis of Confederation were passed?|
Sir Etienne Pascal Tache. Sir Etienne Pascal Tache was descended from the explorer Joliet. In his teens he joined the militia and fought in the War of 1812. He later became a doctor and established a practice in his hometown. First elected to the legislative assembly in 1841, in 1856 he was first minister in the Tache-Macdonald government. He retired due to ill health but was brought back from retirement to serve as head of a government containing both Tory and Grit members - since neither Brown nor Macdonald would serve in a government headed by the other. As first minister of the host province, Tache chaired the Quebec Conference. He died in July 1865.
|Bearing in mind that an assassination is for political reasons and a murder is for personal reasons, one of the Fathers of Confederation was assassinated and one murdered. Which Father of Confederation was assassinated?|
Thomas d'Arcy McGee. Returning to his lodging after a late session in the House of Commons, McGee was was stabbed by a Fenian, Patrick James Whelan. John A. Macdonald died in 1891 of natural causes. There were two Fathers of Confederation named John Hamilton Gray, one born in Prince Edward Island representing that colony, and one born in Bermunda, representing New Brunswick. Neither died at the hands of another.
|Which Father of Confederation was murdered?|
George Brown. George Brown was made a Senator in the new Dominion but continuted his work as editor of the "Toronto Globe". In 1880 he was killed by a disgruntled employee.
|Although not present at the Charlottetown Conference, this colony's representatives did attend the Quebec Conference. The province, however, did not join in 1867 and indeed was the last province to join Confederation. Which province was it?|
Newfoundland. Confederation was a new idea to Newfoundland and the colony was doing well as it was. Prosperous, the idea of Confederation brought with it concerns of higher taxes, loss of legislative independence and higher prices. The depression of 1929 however created a situation where Newfoundland had lost its independent legislature due to the fact that Britain had to bail out the colony financially. The Second World War had increased Newfoundland-Canada contact and created a situation where union with Canada was more attractive. In 1949, Newfoundland joined as Canada's tenth province.
|One of the steps from dependent colony to self governing nation was the attainment of responsible government - i.e. a government dependent upon the will of the legislature. Which governor of the United Province of Canada demonstrated the acceptance of this principle?|
Lord Elgin. Lord Elgin was the son-in-law of Lord Durham. Appointed governor of the Province of Canada in 1847, one of the first problems he faced was the provisions of the Rebellion Losses Bill which provided for compensation for damage to property in Canada East during the rebellion of 1837. Although this bill passed the legislature, the upper class and Lower Canada Tories wanted the governor to veto the provisions. When Elgin accepted the will of the legislature, riots ensued, the governor was stoned and the parliament buildings were burned, BUT the bill was enacted and responsible government attained.
|Only two of the Fathers of Confederation served later as Prime Minister of Canada. One, of course, was Sir John A Macdonald, Canada's first Prime Minister. Who was the other?|
Sir Charles Tupper. Tupper was the only other Father of Confederation to serve as Prime Minister of Canada. Representing Nova Scotia in the Conferences, he as premier of Nova Scotia and took advantage of the political situation to force Confederation through the legislature although as a result he lost the ensuing provincial election. He was Prime Minister for only three months, the last of the five Conservative premiers to serve out the term won by Macdonald in 1891. His term of office of Prime Minister was the shortest of any Canadian Prime Minister.
|The governor of the Province of Canada was instrumental in encouraging the success of Confederation, so much so that his term was extended so that he could be the Governor General of the new Dominion. Who was he?|
Viscount Monck. Viscount Monck requested the attendance of Canadian delegates at the Charlottetown Conference of 1864. Lord Durham was Governor General of British North America in 1838 and was responsible for an investigative report on the causes of the rebellions of 1837. His report recommended the union of Upper and lower Canada and responsible government. Lord Sydenham was the first governor in the United Province of Canada. He acted as his own Prime Minister and campaigned in the election to have elected members who would support his own policies. He died after a fall from his horse. Bagot succeeded Sydenham as governor.
|What was the first province to join Confederation after 1867?|
Manitoba. Manitoba was the first province to join Confederation after 1867. Originally nicknamed the postage stamp province because of its very small area, its boundaries were extended in 1881 with its present boundaries being established in 1912. Cape Breton is part of Nova Scotia and is not a province.
|Which province was promised a railroad connection in order to encourage it to join Confederation?|
British Columbia. British Columbia, as part of its negotiations to join Confederation in 1871, the second new province in Canada, was promised that a railroad would be built within 10 years. With the incorporation of British Columbia into Confederation, the Dominion spanned from sea to sea.
|What induced Prince Edward Island to join Confederation in 1873?|
All of these (Encouragement of Confederation by the governor, Cost of railway construction, Absentee landlords). Since 1867, the colonial governors were under instructions from the Colonial Office to encourage further union. In the meantime, Prince Edward Island had run into financial difficulties. The cost of building its own railroad and the cost of buying out absentee landlords, most of whom lived in the United Kingdom, was proving beyond the colonies own financial resources. The Dominion offered to assume the cost of these activities and Prince Edward Island joined Confederation in 1873.
|John A. Macdonald favoured a legislative union without provinces at the Quebec Conference of 1864 but compromised by accepting a federal state with broad central powers.|
t. The colonies agreed in the need for a strong central government and to limit provincial authority to local matters. Macdonald's idea of a federal state without provinces was unacceptable and went no further. The exact extent of provincial authority was to become a cause of federal-provincial tension even to this day.
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