Special Sub-Topic: Rocket Systems of the World
|SPUTNIK the world's first artificial satellite was propelled into space by which launch vehicles?|
R7 (later called "Vostok"). The Vostok SL-1 (Semyorka) booster was based on the R-7 Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), the world's first ICBM. It holds the distinction of launching the world's first artificial satellite the SPUTNIK - 1. A total of 12 launches were undertaken, of which 4 were devoted to satellites. On 11 April 1961, Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin became the first human in space launched on Vostok-1. After circling the earth, Gagarin ejected and re-entred earth's atmosphere and descended under his own parachute, as planned in Engels Smelovka, Saratov.
|The abbreviation of the Indian launch vehicle GSLV stands for?|
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle. The Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket forms an important part of the 20 year Indian national space programme. It is designed to place satellites in Geo-Synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The sucess of the rocket is of great importance to India. The purpose of the programme is to satisfy India's needs for telecommunications, earth sounding, environmental monitoring and other systems as well as facilitating the country's entrance into the world space market by building a massive satellite network and credible launch capability. GSLV presents the Indian Space Programme with its most demanding technological test. The first launch of GSLV was successfully completed on April 18, 2001. The vehicle was launched from the SHAR Launch Centre in Sriharikota.
|What is the Russian equivalent of the American Space Shuttle?|
Energiya-Buran. Not many know that the Russians have a space shuttle themselves, it's called Buran. The Russians use one giant rocket called the Energiya, which is the largest and most powerful rocket in the world, to boost the shuttle. Energiya-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) can lift a staggering 100 tons. It stands 60 meters high and produces a thrust of 4000 tons. With the shuttle Buran attached it can still lift 30 tons, this is 5 tons more than the American shuttle can with it's 25 tons capacity. The rocket is currently not in use because of lack of funding.
|What country operates Shitl, Start, Rockot and Dnepr launch vehicles?|
Russia. All these launch vehicles are derived from converted missile systems. All these vehicles launch payloads into low earth orbits.
|What country operates the Long March series of launch vehicles?|
China. Tsien Hsue-Shen, the father of China's immensely successful space program, graduated from the California Institute of Technology and went on to become one of the leading rocket scientists in the U.S. He was deported to China after being branded a Communist and spy. Upon arrival in China, he headed the Chinese missile program. He built the technical infrastructure and inculcated systems engineering approaches and processes to enable China build rockets. The early developmental years to build the first missiles were assisted by Russians. Russia not only handed over two functional R-2 missiles but also its technical drawings and data. On 01 September 1960 China conducted its first missile test launching the R-2 missile. After separating with Russia on political issues China went on to build and test several versions of its indigenous missile called the Dong Fang. Like Russia and America, China converted its missile program to the Changzheng CZ-1 (Long March Series) launch vehicle systems, the frist CZ-1 which was launched for the first time on 01 November 1969. This flight was a failure but the next sub-orbital Launch from Jiuquan Space Center in Inner Mongolia on April 24, 1970 was a success, making China the fifth nation to launch an artificial moon to orbit above Earth. The satellite was named Mao-1. Following the success of the CZ-1, China has not looked back since then and before long is likely to become the third country in the world to accomplish a manned mission. All launch activities are carried out at Jiuquan, Xichang and Taiyuan launch complexes.
|Brazil is developing a launch vehicle of its own. What is it called?|
VLS. Brazil has a space program, which succeeded its missile development efforts which are now capped. Brazil's space program is in its nascent stage. It has built several satellites but it is indigenous rocket-launching capability that is eluding them. Russia has aided Brazil in designing the inertial guidance, anti-rolling, and mechanical fin-activation systems used in the Brazilian VLS booster. Brazil's geographic and economic characteristics are such that there is a great potential to employ space technology. The first prototype of the Brazilian space launch vehicle (VLS) was destroyed by ground control 65 seconds after it was launched on 2 November 1997. One of the four strap-on booster rockets failed to ignite. The second launch was tested on 11 December 1999, which also ended in failure. The second stage failed to ignite and the rocket was destroyed by range safety measures. Brazilian launches are carried out from the Alcāntara Launch Center (CLA)
|The Command Module (CM), Service Module (SM) and Lunar Module (LM) are part of which launch vehicle?|
Saturn V. These modules from part of the massive Saturn V LV. The Saturn V was the largest and the most sophisticated operational launch vehicle ever produced. The Saturn V program had evolved into one of the greatest technological feats of modern times, and NASA with exemplary skill and perseverance successfully placed manned Apollo missions on the moon. It is an amazing feat by any standards, since this was accomplished in 1969. Standing over 363 feet high and weighing over 2.7 million kgs with its Apollo Spacecraft payload, it produced over 7.5 million pounds of thrust at lift-off. The "V" designation originates from the five powerful F-1 Engines that powered the first stage of the rocket. The Saturn V remains the largest and most powerful U.S. expendable launch vehicle ever built. The Apollo spacecraft, including the Command Module (CM), Service Module (SM) and Lunar Module (LM) sat atop the launch vehicle. Above the CM was the emergency escape system. Saturn 1 and Saturn 1B rockets preceded the Saturn V.
|Which is the principal participating country of the Ariane space system? |
France. As the worldwide leader in commercial space transportation, Arianespace (European Space Agency) offers a comprehensive family of launch vehicles. The workhorse Ariane 4 and the heavy-lift launcher Ariane 5 has set standards for technology and reliability. Ariane-4 has had 111 successful flights, out of 117 in total, 66 have been consecutive successes and more than 200 satellites have been launched into GTO. France is the leading country in the consortium of European Space agency. India is one of Arianespace major customers, nearly all INSAT satellites have been launched by Ariane vehicles. Ariane 1 is the first successful commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle. The follow up vehicle Ariane 2 was with increased thrust first and second stage engines, it has a stretched third stage, larger internal payload fairing volume compared to the Ariane 1. Payload of basic Ariane 3 added two solid rocket motor strap-ons. Ariane 4 is the current vehicle being offered along with the Ariane 5, it has several versions with a combination of solid and liquid propellant strap-on motors. Ariane 5 is a completely new design, with a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two huge solid rocket boosters.
|The Israelies have a launch vehicle of their own. What is it called?|
Shavit. SHAVIT is a three stage solid fuel launcher derived from the Jericho II system. The first two stages lift the launcher to an altitude of approximately 110 km. From this point, the launcher continues to gain height while coasting up to approximately 250 km, and ejects the satellite shroud. After the separation of the main instrumentation compartment, the third stage motor is ignited. The satellite is inserted accurately into its transfer orbit at an altitude of approximately 260 km. SHAVIT utilizes a unique set of launch preparation equipment. It is largely independent of the launch site and provides full testing of the launcher on the launch pad. This configuration enables satellite launch from different launch sites, according to customer requirements. Most of the launches are carried out from the Palmachim/Yavne air force base. The payload capacity is around 260 kg into an in Low earth elliptical orbit (LEO) of 207 km by 1,587 km with a highly retrograde inclination of 143.2 degrees. The launcher is 59 ft tall and weighs around 27 tonnes with a diameter of 5.1 ft. Shavit launch vehicle first flew on 19 September 1988. Israeli space industry is making substantial investments in space technology; it has recently established a joint venture with the French company Astrium called LeoLink. This new consortium will provide satellite launch services for the global market.
|The N1 Super Booster of Russia is the equivalent of which American space Vehicle?|
Saturn V. The N1 launch vehicle, developed in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the Moon, and place huge military space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, the program was dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed
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