Special Sub-Topic: The Battle of Gallipoli
|At the time of Gallipoli what position did Winston Churchill hold?|
First Lord of the Admiralty. Although Churchill served as a member of the British Army later in WWI, in 1915 he held a political position as First Lord of the Admiralty. This position included duties such as advising the War Council and communicating with the admirals who were at sea.
|Which admiral was initially in charge of spearheading the operation at Gallipoli?|
Admiral Carden. Admiral Carden, who commanded the British Navy just off of the Egyptian coast, was given the task of spearheading the Gallipoli operation. Three days before the main attack was to take place, however, he fell seriously ill and had to resign.
|On what date did the initial attack occur?|
March 18, 1915. The initial attack took place on March 18, 1915 just over a month over after the War Council approved the plan. Ironically, it took place only days after the Ides of March.
|During the planning stages of the Gallipoli strategy:|
The British admiral who had helped with the Turkish defenses was not consulted. In the years prior to 1914, the British realized that the Dardenelles Strait was weak and so sent one of their best defense admirals (Sir Arthur Limpus: Naval Advisor to the Turkish government from 1912-1914) to help the Turks to defend this important area. During the planning stages, however, he was not consulted.
|Why were the British interested in the Dardanelles Straits?|
They are the only link to Russia's only warm sea port. The Russians, Britain's allies, could not fend off the Germans on their own, and without access to the Black Sea (accessible to the rest of the world only through the Dardanelles) they would have no means by which to trade and therefore no sustainable economy.
|Eventually, the army was brought in, in order to assist the British Navy. Was this part of the original plan?|
No, Churchill wasn't even consulted about it. When Admiral De Robeck took over for Admiral Carden, he attempted the naval attack, but as it had failed, he sought to bring in troops and land support, despite not having carried out reconnaissance or consulting Britain. In fact, the War Council did not even meet during the entire Gallipoli Campaign.
|When troops were brought in, the ANZAC played a huge role in the whole of the Gallipoli Campaign. What does ANZAC stand for?|
Australia New Zealand Army Corps. The Australia and New Zealand Army Corps fought hard and long for the British Empire, to whom they held allegiance at the time. Although this particular endeavor was a failure, the ANZAC troops became known as some of the fiercest fighters of all time and became famous as one of the greatest corps to fight in the First World War.
|Gallipoli was to the ANZAC and their homeland as what was to Canada?|
Vimy Ridge. During the First World War, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, which had recently gained independence within the British Empire, emerged as formidable military powers, despite some painful losses. Although Gallipoli was the failure for Australia and New Zealand, Vimy Ridge was Canada's victory and France to this day has a memorial to the Canadians who fought, died and saved Vimy Ridge.
|Following the failure of Gallipoli what did Winston Churchill do?|
He resigned from his post and became a soldier in the war. Winston Churchill, a humble man, felt that he was at complete fault for the failure of Gallipoli. The other members of the British Cabinet tended to agree, and as a result, Churchill decided to resign, from his post as First Lord of the Admiralty, although it cannot be conclusively proven that the Gallipoli failure is ultimately what pushed him out of office.
|Gallipoli is located in what is today Turkey. During the attack on the Dardenelles, and the Battle of Gallipoli, which empire did this area belong to?|
Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire, described already in the 1840s as the 'sick man of Europe' made an effective 'last stand' at Gallipoli but it was soon to crumble.
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