Special Sub-Topic: Tumors
|Asbestos, a material once used in insulation, is associated with this tumor which arises from the cells lining the outer surface of the lung.|
mesothelioma. A hamartoma of the lung is a rare benign tumor that is typically composed of cartilage. Thymoma is a tumor of the thymus gland which can be benign or malignant. Small cell carcinoma is a very aggressive lung cancer occurring in smokers.
|This tumor causes hypercalcemia (elevated blood calcium levels).|
parathyroid adenoma. The parathyroid gland normally regulates calcium levels. A parathyroid adenoma is a benign tumor which overproduces parathyroid hormone. This tumor is often first suspected when routine lab testing discovers elevated blood calcium levels.
|This tumor produces steroid hormones.|
adrenal cortical adenoma. The adrenal cortex normally produces steroid hormones but this tumor produces too much. Steroid hormones can cause Cushing's syndrome with features such as obesity with a buffalo hump on the back of the neck, easy bruising, stretch marks on the skin, acne and hirsuitism (excessive hair growth).
|Most common skin cancer.|
basal cell carcinoma. Basal cell carcinoma occurs in sun-exposed areas of the skin such as the face. While it has almost no risk of distant spread or death this tumor can be very disfiguring. Acne is an inflammatory process not a tumor. Kaposi's sarcoma is a skin cancer associated with HIV infection.
|Most common fatal skin cancer.|
malignant melanoma. Melanoma is a tumor of the pigment-producing cells of the skin. A benign tumor of this cell type is called a mole or nevus. Melanoma can cause an irregularly pigmented lesion on the skin. If caught early, melanoma can often be treated successfully.
|This ovarian tumor is named for the skin with hair follicles it usually contains. Other tissue often found in this tumor are brain tissue, teeth and respiratory mucosa.|
dermoid cyst. This benign tumor is also called a mature teratoma. It's unusual for a tumor to produce different types of tissue like this one does.
|Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary typically cause virilization due to male hormone production. Which of the following might suggest this tumor?|
deepening voice. Deepening voice is a feature of virilization. There are many other causes of virilization besides this tumor such as polycystic ovarian disease.
|Human papilloma virus (HPV) is strongly associated with this tumor.|
squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pap smears can identify changes of HPV and pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix. Different strains of HPV have different risks of progressing to malignancy.
|Which of the following statements about pancreatic carcinoma is NOT TRUE?|
Pancreatic carcinoma can be cured by surgery in the majority of cases.. By the time pancreatic carcinoma is diagnosed it has usually spread beyond the pancreas. Surgery can be attempted in perhaps 10-20% of patients with pancreatic carcinoma but even then the tumor is still often fatal.
|All of the following statements about renal cell carcinoma of the kidney are TRUE EXCEPT:|
Patients who are disease free two years after surgery have almost no risk of future recurrence.. Renal cell carcinomas have an approximately 10% recurrence rate 10 years after apparently successful surgery. The recurrence is often in a site far away from the kidney such as the lung or brain.
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