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19th Century Pathologists and Physiologists
Scientists & Inventors
"The work of a comparatively small number of scientists in the 19th Century forms the basis for most of modern medicine and physiology. Most of this material comes from Asimov's wonderful "Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.""
15 Points Per Correct Answer - No time limit
I lived 1821-1902. Often called the father of medical pathology, I taught that diseased cells descended from normal cells. I refused to accept the "germ" theory of disease, and disbelieved the theory of natural selection, or evolution.
Born in Hungary, I worked as an obstetrician in Vienna. I taught that doctors should wash their hands after performing autopsies. As a Hungarian working in Austria, I was hounded by the medical establishment despite the remarkable reduction in puerperal fever among my patients. I died of the same illness after a cut became infected at an autopsy.
I was the best-known physiologist of the 19th Century. I propounded the "germ theory" of disease, that diseases were caused by minute, invisible organisms. I made major contributions to immunisation against rabies, and discovered the anthrax bacillus, as well as saving the French silk industry and wine industry. My sterilisation procedure is named after me.
I lived from 1804-1878, mostly in Vienna where I taught pathological anatomy, performing over 30,000 autopsies. I taught that all diseases arise from a "dyscrasia" of the blood which subsequently affected other organs.
Justus von Liebig
Born in Russia in 1845, I became director of the Pasteur Institute in 1904 and shared the 1908 Nobel Prize for my work on immunology, especially the theory of phagocytosis, whereby white blood cells engulf and destroy invading bacteria.
I lived from 1818 till 1896. While studying at the University of Berlin I became interested in the electrical properties of animal tissues, and I am recognized as the founder of electrophysiology. I was also one of Darwin's early supporters.
Emil du Bois-Reymond
I was one of the founders of modern embryology, living from 1817 to 1905 in Zurich and Wurzburg. Using the microscope I isolated the cells of smooth muscle, my first book on histology was published in 1852, and of embryology in 1861. This interpreted the embryo in light of the new science of cell theory.
Rudolf von Kolliker
I lived in Germany from 1809 to 1885. Using the microscope I was the first to recognize certain kidney tubules, now named after me. In 1846 my pathology book unified diseased or pathological change with normal tissue physiology. I also speculated that microorganisms may be the cause of disease. I am Friedrich ____.
(Sounds like an English regatta!!)
I lived in Germany from 1810 to 1882. In 1836 I isolated the enzyme pepsin from the stomach lining, the first such from animal tissue. I am most noted for developing the cell theory in 1839, whereby all living tissues consist of individual cells with common properties such as the nucleus and a cell wall.
I lived in Germany from 1801 to 1858. I was a founder of the science of physiology, whereby findings were examined experimentally rather than by mystical vitalist interpretation. I was an inspiring teacher with several students going on to great findings in the latter 19th Century.
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Compiled Jun 28 12