Special Sub-Topic: Canine Parvovirus
|What organs are primarily infected by canine parvovirus (CPV)?|
Intestine and heart. CPV (as I will now refer to it) primarily attacks the fast replicating cells of the dog's intestine. In puppies there are cases when the virus attacks the heart tissue; cardiac infections aren't seen as often as intestinal ones.
|Sometimes vaccinations given to puppies against parvo are ineffective. What makes early vaccinations useless for a short period of time?|
Colostrum in the puppy's system.. The colostrum is what renders vaccines temporarily ineffective. This is a form of milk that is rich in antibodies that protect the puppy from harmful pathogens. As the puppy grows older, the protection from the colostrum wears off. There is a time when the colostrum is no longer strong enough to protect from a real parvo infection but is strong enough to fight off the vaccine (which is technically a dead or weakened version of the virus). This is why it is important to give multiple vaccines, so that when the colostrum wears off completely, the puppy's system can fully react to the vaccine and create its own protection.
|The word 'parvo' comes from which of the following roots?|
Latin word 'parvus' meaning small.. The word 'parvo' is derived from the Latin parvus meaning small. This is because the virus itself is actually really small (compared to other viruses). Its actual size is about 20-26 nm in diameter. All other options were made up.
|By which of the following can CPV be spread?|
All of these (Fomites, Feces, Your hands). Pretty much anything can transmit this virus. Fomites are any inanimate objects that carry a pathogen; the virus can be carried on infected cages, shoes, bowls, etc. Since the virus is shed in the feces, these commonly spread the virus. CPV can reside even on our hands; this is why good hygiene is important to avoid spreading.
|The virus ____________ hot, cold, humid, and dry environments.|
is resistant to. Unfortunately, this is one hardy virus. It can still function in even the harshest of environments. It doesn't necessarily 'thrive' in these environments, but it can still survive in them.
|What kind of dogs are at an increased risk of getting infected by CPV?|
Puppies less than 4 months.. According to the AVMA, puppies less than four months old and unvaccinated dogs are at an increased risk of getting parvo. All dogs are at risk of being infected by CPV but they are not at an increased risk of infection.
|CPV infection causes which of the following symptoms?|
Fever, lethargy, vomiting, and severe (sometimes bloody) diarrhea.. These are the symptoms of a dog suffering from a CPV infection. They may not all be present. Symptoms depend on the dog and on the strain of the virus. Immediate veterinary attention is needed when these symptoms are noted.
|An examination of what is needed to confirm CPV diagnosis?|
Stool. A fecal examination can confirm a CPV diagnosis; seeing how the virus is shed in the stool it would be the easiest way to identify the pathogen.
|Any CPV strain can infect humans, pigs, and birds.|
f. Viruses are usually equipped with unique proteins to infect specific hosts, thus a human cannot have a CPV infection unless the virus mutated to be able to infect him/her. However, CPV can be carried by these even though they can't infect them. Parvoviruses that specifically infect humans, pigs, or birds do exist.
|What is unique about CPV-2b (strain FP84)?|
It can also infect some domestic cats.. This strain has been found to infect a small percentage of domestic cats, which is strange because viruses usually only infect a specific kind of host.
|Which of the following is NOT a treatment for a dog infected with CPV?|
Vaccinating the dog.. CPV severely damages the intestinal wall making absorption difficult, thus IVs are needed to keep the dog from dehydrating. Damage to the intestinal walls allows for secondary infections; medication is used to prevent this. Keeping the dog warm is also recommended. Vaccinations are only effective when given before infection not during one.
|Black and tan breeds such as the Doberman and Rottweiler may be more susceptible to CPV infections.|
t. As strange as it may sound, this is true. The black and tan breeds tend to succumb to parvo faster and their recovery rate is much lower compared to other breeds.
|Which of the following would be a good way to prevent a CPV infection?|
Vaccination and good hygiene.. Vaccinations are a good way to prevent an infection, the body is able to create the antibodies it needs to ward off an infection. Good hygiene is critical to prevent the spread of the virus, especially if you have come in contact with an infected dog or object. Looking for symptoms isn't a good way to 'prevent' an infection, if you see symptoms the dog already has the infection. Isolation isn't helpful either, if not vaccinated, the dog can still get infected.
|Which is a good agent to help disinfect objects that might have CPV?|
Chlorine bleach.. Chlorine bleach is a common household product that one can use to disinfect objects that might have come in contact with the virus. Very few cleaning products will "kill" the virus. It is recommended to use a 1:30 ratio chlorine bleach to water. Some sources say one cup (or 1/2 cup) of chlorine bleach to a gallon of water will give you a solution to help disinfect objects.
|Even if an owner has had his/her dog vaccinated properly, a small percentage of dogs may not develop the protection they need to fight an infection.|
t. It all depends on the dog. The vaccination is given to stimulate the dog's immune system to develop the correct antibodies to be able to fight any future infections by this virus. However because not every dog has an excellent immune system, the protection that is supposed to be developed isn't achieved. It all goes back to prevention.
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