Special Sub-Topic: Volcanoes and Earthquakes
|In 1628 BCE, a large volcanic eruption devastated the city of Santorini, Greece. What was the estimate official VEI score for this eruption?
(Note - VEI stands for Volcanic Explosivity Index, and the scale goes from 1 to 8, with 8 being the most powerful eruption. It takes into account the height of the eruption cloud, the amount of material erupted (such as ash) and distances to which objects of differing sizes are thrown.)|
6. The number of casualties for this eruption is unknown, because of the time this disaster occurred. However, the Minoan civilisation inhabiting the Santorini area at the time would most likely have been destroyed by the eruption.
|Which Chinese city was devastated by a magnitude 7.5 earthquake on the 27 July, 1976?|
Tangshan. The damage from this earthquake extended as far as Beijing, and aftershocks measuring 5.0 on the Richter scale continued after the initial quake.
|The eruption of the Indonesian volcano Krakatoa is well documented. The volcano erupted several times in the year of 1883. The worst eruption was on August 27th, 1883 when Krakatoa exploded four times during the morning.
True or False? Krakatoa's third explosion on the morning of 27th August 1883 was the loudest sound in recorded history.|
t. The August 27th eruptions were heard in Perth, Australia (over 3500km away) and in Mauritius (over 4800km away!) as well as many other cities around the world.
|The Chinese city of Shaanxi suffered a massive earthquake that measured around 8 on the Richter scale. Exactly where was the epicentre of this quake?|
Wei River Valley. Both Yunyang and Changyuan are cities in the province of Chongqing, and would have been devastated by this earthquake. Nu Jiang is a southward-flowing river in China that is about 2,450 km long. After leaving China, the river is known as the Salween River.
|A large eruption in historical times was Tambora (Indonesia) in 1815, which had a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 7 - one of only four VEI7 eruptions in the last 10,000 years. Approximately how many lives were claimed by this eruption?|
92,000. At Tambora, about 40 km3 of ash was blasted into the atmosphere, and 10,000 people were killed as a direct result of the eruption. Crop loss and famine claimed the lives of 80,000 more.
|On the 9 August 1138, a massive earthquake struck a small Syrian town, killing over 200,000 people. Where in Syria was this earthquake?|
Aleppo. The magnitude of this large earthquake is unknown, but the consensus is that it would have measured at least 6.5 on the Richter scale, more likely over 7.
|The Mt St. Helens eruption in 1980 had a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 5.|
t. The eruption was the most significant to occur in the contiguous 48 U.S. states (VEI = 5), in terms of power and volume of material released since the 1915 eruption of California's Lassen Peak.
|An earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale killed over 200,000 people near Xining, China. The earthquake occurred on the 22nd May 1926.|
f. The earthquake occurred on the 22nd May 1927. This earthquake was categorised as a major earthquake and large areas of land were fractured as a result of this devastating quake.
|Which volcano is the largest volcano in the world?|
Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Mauna Loa is one of five volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii. Mauna Kea is taller by about 120ft, but in terms of volume, Mauna Loa is officially the largest (approximately 75,000 cubic kilometres volume, easily beating Mauna Kea's volume of approximately 30,000 cubic kilometres).
|What is an earthquake measuring 8 or greater on the Richter scale officially classified as?|
Great earthquake. A 'great earthquake' must record a reading of at least 8 on the Richter scale. A major earthquake has a Richter scale reading of between 7.0 and 7.9. Both of these types of earthquakes can cause widespread severe damage.
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