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Background to Nazism I: Antisemitism
"This is the first in a series of quizzes on some aspects of the background to Nazism and the Third Reich. It may dispel some myths."
15 Points Per Correct Answer - No time limit
Germany was notorious for exceptionally rabid antisemitism, almost without interruption, from the time of the Crusades until 1945.
Which of these countries had a large and electorally successful antisemitic political party in the period c. 1885-1918?
Many of the early German nationalist poets and thinkers claimed that Jews could not be "true Germans". Which of these authors did NOT express such views?
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)
Ludwig Uhland (1787-1860)
Friedrich Jahn (1778-1852)
Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769-1860)
In the period 1815-71 there were no major anti-Jewish disturbances in the German states.
By which of these dates had all the German states granted full citizenship to their permanent Jewish inhabitants?
Why did Wilhelm Marr (1819-1904) invent the term "antisemitism" and popularize the words "antisemite" and "antisemitic" from 1879 onwards?
He was fed up with being called a "Jew-baiter" ("Judenhetzer")
The word made it clear that he was concerned with race, not religion
He wanted to persuade voters that he, too, had an "-ism" to cure the world's ills
For all these reasons
In the period c. 1880-1900 Jews were sometimes accused of "ritual murder" - a grotesque revival of one of the worst features of the Middle Ages. In four instances in Central Europe Jews were brought to trial as a result of such accusations. In which of these cases was the accused convicted of murder?
Tisza-Eszlar, Hungary (1882)
Konitz, West Prussia (1900)
Xanten, Rhineland (1891)
Polna, Moravia (1899)
Assessing the level of antisemitism in Germany under William II (reigned 1888-1918) is not simple, but it is generally thought that for most of this period it was not more widespread or more intense than in most other European countries. However, in 1916 German Jewish soldiers (and German Jews more generally) had an unpleasant shock. The Prussian Minister of War, Adolf Wild von Hohenborn, issued an order. What was it?
That a census be taken of Jews serving (1) at the front and (2) behind the lines
The demotion of Jewish officers
A ban on the further promotions of Jewish soldiers
That Jewish soldiers be posted to places of particular danger
Which of these countries was notorious in the period c. 1881-1914 for frequent pogroms?
The reformer, Martin Luther (1483-1546), wrote a violently anti-Jewish booklet in 1543. What was the main long-term significance of this?
Hatred of the Jews became a Lutheran doctrine
None of these
Lutheranism became the most anti-Jewish of all Christian demoninations
It set Germany inexorably on the path to Nazism and the Holocaust
Between about 1895 and Hitler's rise to power, Jews regarded Germany as a dangerous country to live in.
What accounts for the growth in antisemitism in Germany in period c. 1918-33?
Antisemitic propaganda by some emigrés from the Soviet Union
The perception that Jews were heavily involved in Bolshevism
All of these
The view that Jews led the German revolutions of 1918
On 1 April 1933 the Nazis organized a boycott of Jewish businesses in Berlin. The boycott was much less successful than the Nazis hope for.
In which of these Central European cities did the arrival of Nazi power trigger an explosion of antisemitic violence?
It has sometimes been claimed, for example by Daniel Goldhagen in "Hitler's Willing Executioners" (Alfred Knopf, Inc., New York, 1996), that German antisemitism in the period c. 1810-1945 was *fundamentally different in kind* from antisemitism in other countries, and that it aimed at "elimination". What is (or are) the key problem(s) with such a view?
It fails to address the correlation between economic distress and antisemitism in Germany
Nobody commented on any such feature of German antisemitism till the 1930s
All of these
The reluctance of many German Jews to leave Germany in the period 1933-39
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Compiled May 25 13