Special Sub-Topic: Male Deer Have Buck Teeth
|What are four different names that a male deer can be known as?|
Buck, bull, hart and stag. Most male deer are referred to as bucks. Large species of deer can be known as bulls and medium sized species known as stags. Geographic region can also factor into if a male deer is called a bull, buck, hart or stag. Stags have also been called harts, as used in English pub names like "The Red Hart" and "The White Hart". Young deer can also be called by different names depending on size, with most being fawns, larger young calves and smaller ones kids.
Heteroprox is the oldest known deer fossil and they looked much like modern day muntjacs. Heteroprox was found in Europe. Larger species appeared later, such as the extinct Megaloceros, whose antlers had a 3.5 meter span.
|On which continent couldn't you find a deer, until they were introduced there in the 19th century?|
Australia. During global push to "Share the worlds most beautiful and useful things" in the latter part of the 19th century, six species of deer were introduced to Australia.
Early European settlers to New Zealand brought deer with them. As the deer population rose, they began to have a negative effect on the environment. Hunting and poisoning had to be used to limit the environmental impact. In the middle part of the 20th century deer farms began to spring up and have over 400,000 deer on them.
Deer can be found on all continents except Antarctica. Surprisingly there is only one species of deer native to Africa; these are the Red Deer, who inhabit the Atlas Mountains.
Deer can live in a variety of environments, from the colder tundra to hotter tropical rain forest environments.
|With most species of deer you can tell a buck from a doe by the antlers. For which species would it take closer inspection to determine gender, since both bucks and does have antlers?|
Reindeer. The Sámi people of Scandinavia, people from the Kola Peninsula in Russia, as well as nomadic groups from northern Asia have all used domesticated reindeer. They have used the reindeer for clothing, transport as well as food.
|What time of year are bucks most likely to use their antlers for fighting?
Mating Season. In an effort to make themselves more appealing to mates, bucks will circle each other and charge with their heads lowered.
|Some red deer stags do not grow antlers. What are these non-antlered deer known as?|
Hummels. Hummels are known to grow larger than normal antlered males. It is thought this is due to their bodies not having to use resources to form the antlers.
The reason the antlers do not grow on some red deer is still unknown, but it is suspected that malnutrition during their early life may cause this to occur. The male offspring of Hummels do grow antlers.
DNA testing has shown that there are three different species of red deer. These are the European red deer, Central Asian red deer and American elk, also known as the wapiti.
|In which species of deer do the bucks have enlarged upper canine teeth but do not grow antlers?|
Chinese Water Deer. There are three species of deer who have enlarged upper canine teeth, the Chinese water deer, the tufted deer and the muntjac deer. Of these only the Chinese water deer does not grow antlers. The canine teeth can be used in the same way as antlers for fighting.
The structure the antlers are regrown from each year is called a pedicle.
|Where on male deer are the glands which they use to mark their territory?|
Near their eyes. Most deer have glands near each eye, which contain a strong pheromone. They mark their territory with this pheromone. If angered or excited, these glands can open up wide on the bucks.
The pheromone markings are also called "rubs" and are used, mostly by hunters, to locate paths that deer travel.
|Deer have molars, pre-molars, canine, and incisor teeth in the bottom of their mouths. Excluding the canine teeth a few species of deer have, what replaces the canine and incisor teeth in the upper portion of a deer's mouth?|
Callous/Bony Pad. The bottom front of the deer's mouth contains incisors and canine teeth. Molars and pre-molars are found towards the back of the deer's mouth, in both upper and lower portions.
Deer feed mainly on leaves, due to high nutrition requirements and don't have specialized stomachs. They look for the food that is easier to digest, such as young leaves, fresh grasses, soft twigs, aquatic plants, shoots, fruit, fungi, and lichens.
Deer tongues are long and contain numerous taste buds, allowing them to pick out the best food for their diets.
Young deer have smaller teeth that are better for milking. The fawns stay with the mother for about a year. Female deer may return to the mother as they get older and form herds. Male deer do not usually see their mothers following that first year.
|There is a Cherokee Indian legend surrounding how the teeth of deer formed. Which other animal is said to have caused deer teeth to be blunt, as revenge for the deer having won antlers?|
Rabbit. The teeth of an adult deer are flat, which is perfect for their diet.
As well as in Native American legends, deer have been used in heraldry. In heraldry, the stag/hart is usually used or at times the hind, which is another name for some female deer. Hertfordshire in England has a stag in its coat of arms. Regions in Norway also use the stag's head, as does the Israeli Postal Service.
|Which of the following statements is true?|
Teeth are the only real way to determine the age of a deer. Hunters and scientists are able to determine the age of deer using their teeth. The number of teeth, dentine deposition, cupping, and wear on the teeth all help to determine a deer's age.
Groups are deer are known as a herds.
Most deer do not live past 5 ½ years, some do though and if they reach an age older than 9 years or so, their teeth can almost be worn down to the gum.
As noted in the information following question number two, Reindeer have been domesticated in some areas of the world.
Many people know that deer meat is called venison. Less known is that deer organ meat is known as umble. The origins of the phrase "Eating Humble Pie" are drawn from eating umble.
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