Special Sub-Topic: Williamsburg, VA - Participant in Revolution
|On May 30, 1765, this Virginian denounced the Stamp Act in the Capitol building. Who was it?|
Patrick Henry. When Patrick Henry denounced the Stamp Act in Williamsburg's House of Burgesses, his peers cried "Treason", but his powerful arguments prevailed. From this point forward, this eloquent patriot took a leadership role in the Revolution.
|On May 24, 1774, the Virginia Assembly in Williamsburg resolved to set aside June 1 as a day of "fasting, humiliation and prayer" in support of which revolutionary act?|
The Boston Tea Party. This resolution so provoked Lord Dunmore, British governor of the Virginia Colony, that he dissolved the General Assembly. When the Revolutionary War broke out, he offered freedom to any slave who would join his army. This is now recognized as the first wholesale emancipation of African slaves in America.
|As anti-Britain sentiments continued to rise in the city, Governor Dunmore took what drastic action on April 20, 1775?|
Ordered royal marines to seize gunpowder from Williamsburg's magazine. In response to Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech in March of 1775, Lord Dunmore ordered Lieutenant Henry Collins and his squad of marines to empty the arsenal and disable the firearms that were stored there. Lt. Collins' raiding party was discovered and a drum warning was sounded throughout the city, but the Brits managed to get away with 15 half-barrels of powder. Today historians call this action "the spark that ignited the Revolution in Virginia".
|This tavern became the new "home" of the Virginia Assembly when the royal governor dissolved that group and forbade them to meet in the Capitol.|
Raleigh Tavern. During Williamsburg's 80-year tenure as capital of Virginia, its taverns were filled with Virginians who argued over politics, made business deals, shared the latest news, and, of course, enjoyed the food and drink. Benton J. Lossing, a 19th century chronicler, wrote "The Raleigh Tavern and the Apollo Room are to Virginia, relatively, what Faneuil Hall is to Massachusetts". All of these taverns are restored and can be visited in Colonial Williamsburg.
|From August 1 through 6, 1774, the following was (or were) enacted against Britain by the first Virginia Convention in Williamsburg. Which?|
All of these (No importation of British goods, No importation of slaves, No exportation to Britain). Delegates to the First Continental Congress were also elected at this Convention: Peyton Randolph (who served as President of the Congress), Richard Bland, Benjamin Harrison V, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Edmund Pendleton, and George Washington.
|This Williamsburg citizen was the first Virginian to sign the Declaration of Independence.|
George Wythe. George Wythe was so respected by his fellow Virginian delegates that, although he couldn't attend the meeting where the document was signed, they left a space for his name above theirs. This legal scholar, whose pupils included Thomas Jefferson and John Marshall, was poisoned in 1806 by a grandnephew anxious for his inheritance. Although Wythe's cook was in the kitchen when the food was poisoned, her testimony wasn't admissible because a slave couldn't testify against a white person. Peyton Randolph, while very active in the quest for independence, died in October, 1775. John Hancock, the first signer, was from Massachusetts. Thomas Jefferson's signature was third among the Virginia delegates.
|Prior to the Battle of Yorktown in 1781, whose troops occupied Williamsburg?|
Lord Charles Cornwallis. Banastre Tarleton was nicknamed "Bloody Ban" and "Butcher" by the revolutionaries. The movie "The Patriot" also portrayed him as a cruel and ruthless officer. John Pitcairn was stationed in Boston and died at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Hugh Percy served in the Battle of Lexington and Concord, but resigned his command and returned to England in 1777. Today Lord Cornwallis's occupation is brought to life by military re-enactors who camp in Williamsburg's Market Square and patrol the city as hated "Redcoats".
|These Virginia brothers were split by divided loyalties during the Revolutionary War. One brother remained loyal to the King and returned to England. The other brother remained in Williamsburg and was appointed by his peers to the First Continental Congress.|
John and Peyton Randolph. The Randolph brothers, cousins to Thomas Jefferson, both served as Speaker of the House of Burgesses, but John returned to England rather than participate in what he considered to be treason. John's son Edmund, however, remained in Virginia where he joined the army and was aide-de-camp to George Washington. Though John died in England, at his request he was buried in the family vault in Williamsburg.
|This Virginian served in Williamsburg in the House of Burgesses, was a member of the Continental Congress, signed the Declaration of Independence, and was a Colonel in the militia. Yet he was against the creation of an American Constitution.|
Richard Henry Lee. Richard Henry Lee was averse to the idea of an extremely powerful central government and advocated the inclusion of the Tenth Amendment in the Constitution. This amendment sought to limit the powers of the government only to those things specifically granted in the Constitution. (Nice try, Richard Henry!).
|This man led the Continental Army into Williamsburg in 1781 and liberated the citizens from martial law.|
Marquis de Lafayette. The Marquis de Lafayette was a close friend and staunch admirer of George Washington, and he worked diligently to persuade France to support the colonies' quest for independence. In 2002, Congress granted him honorary U.S. citizenship. George Washington was busy besieging Cornwallis in Yorktown at the time of Williamsburg's liberation. Horatio Gates served in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina. Francis Marion, nicknamed "Swamp Fox", eluded Colonel Tarleton's determined pursuit by using old swamp paths - hence Marion's nickname. Today the "Swamp Fox" is recognized as one of the architects of modern guerilla warfare.
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