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Ottoman Empire Quizzes, Trivia and Puzzles
Ottoman Empire Quizzes, Trivia

Ottoman Empire Trivia

Ottoman Empire Trivia Quizzes

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9 Ottoman Empire quizzes and 100 Ottoman Empire trivia questions.
  The Ottoman Turks   great trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
The Ottoman Turks began to amass their empire c. 1299 AD, and continued to rule some of the areas they conquered until 1922. Let's see what you know about the Ottoman Turks.
Average, 10 Qns, ponycargirl, Jun 06 23
ponycargirl editor
Jun 06 23
359 plays
  Tales of the Janissary   top quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Janissaries, who eventually became elite corpsmen in the army of the Ottoman Empire, were important members of the Sultan's household for centuries. What do you know about this unique group?
Average, 10 Qns, ponycargirl, Mar 30 19
ponycargirl editor
Mar 30 19
240 plays
  Who's Who: Ottoman Empire   great trivia quiz  
Match Quiz
 10 Qns
Ottoman emperors ruled their vast empire from 1299-1922. While it should be stated that official positions and titles could change over time, all of the following did serve at one time or another. See if you can match the official to their title.
Average, 10 Qns, ponycargirl, Mar 07 19
ponycargirl editor
Mar 07 19
186 plays
  Tales of Tulips   top quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Why was the time from 1718-1730 known as the Tulip Era in the Ottoman Empire? "Come, let's grant joy to this heart of ours that founders in distress: Let's go to the pleasure gardens, come, my sauntering cypress".--Nedim
Average, 10 Qns, ponycargirl, Aug 15 17
ponycargirl editor
Aug 15 17
239 plays
  The Ottoman Empire Under Suleiman I   great trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Suleiman I -- also known as Suleiman the Magnificent -- ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566. Those 46 years marked the peak of the Empire. What do you know about them?
Average, 10 Qns, CellarDoor, Apr 07 13
CellarDoor gold member
411 plays
  The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
A quiz on the history of the Ottoman Empire, from its inception to its dissolution.
Tough, 10 Qns, Gil_Galad, Apr 07 13
427 plays
  Ottoman Empire    
Multiple Choice
 20 Qns
These questions are related to the Ottoman Empire and its neighbors during the last phase of the empire 1800-1923. In this period the empire and neighboring regions broke up into fragments. I want you to find the names of these 'fragments'.
Difficult, 20 Qns, author, Jun 16 20
Jun 16 20
1508 plays
  The Ottoman Sultans    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
To many people the Ottoman Empire is something of a mystery. Ten questions on the sultans who ran this empire.
Difficult, 10 Qns, sultan, Mar 28 14
1032 plays
  Early Days of the Ottoman Empire    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This first quiz profiles the formation of the Ottoman empire, up until the first sultans. Have fun :)
Difficult, 10 Qns, paulus1943, Jan 09 17
945 plays
trivia question Quick Question
What Turkish chieftain brought together his followers into a group that became known to history as the Ottomans?

From Quiz "The Ottoman Turks"

Ottoman Empire Trivia Questions

1. The beginning of the Tulip Era in the Ottoman Empire coincides with the signing of a treaty in 1718. What was the name of the treaty?

From Quiz
Tales of Tulips

Answer: Treaty of Passarowitz

It was a time that signaled the end of war and defeat for the Ottoman Empire. One of their worse military losses ever had been suffered at the hands of Austria. Signed on July 21, 1718, the Treaty of Passarowitz ended the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-1718 between the Ottoman Empire who fought against the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and the Republic of Venice. While the Ottomans had been successful in gaining land from Venice during the war, they had lost part of modern-day Serbia to the Habsburgs. Serbia was consequently made a crown land in the Habsburg Empire, while the Ottomans gained the Peloponnese in Greece, as well as Crete and other Greek islands and some cities on the mainland. The signing of the treaty began the Tulip Era in the Ottoman Empire, which is also known as Lâle Devri, as a way for the Ottoman Emperor to boost morale.

2. In what year did Osman I declare the independence of the Ottoman Turks, marking the beginning of the Ottoman Empire?

From Quiz The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

Answer: 1299

Osman I was the founder of the Ottoman state. He became the leader of the Ottomans after his father died in 1281, but it wasn't until 1299 that he declared their independence. After that, Osman focused on attacking the weakened Byzantine areas in Asia Minor, until his death in 1326.

3. Occupied by British from India 1839, gradual extension of British control.

From Quiz Ottoman Empire

Answer: Aden

Governed by British as part of India 1839-1937, made crown colony 1937. Increased greatly in importance as coaling station and transshipment point after the opening of the Suez Canal 1869.

4. What was Selim II's nickname?

From Quiz The Ottoman Sultans

Answer: the Sot

Selim II was a big-time drunk. He ruled from 1566 to 1574.

5. Ancient nomadic tribes along the western side of what steppe were the seeds of the Ottoman Empire?

From Quiz Early Days of the Ottoman Empire

Answer: Eurasian

These nomads were agriculturalists, herders, and some merchants.

6. In which area of the ancient world did the Ottoman Empire have its beginnings?

From Quiz The Ottoman Turks

Answer: Anatolia

Most historians believe that the people who became known as the Ottoman Turks left Central Asia during the period of Mongol invasions in the 1200s, and settled in the western part of Anatolia, which is approximately modern-day Turkey. Over time the Ottoman Empire stretched from North Africa, Western Asia, and Southern and Eastern Europe. At the peak of their power in 1683, the Ottomans ruled approximately 2 million square miles (5.2 square kilometers) of territory - an estimated 4% of the world's land, comparable in size to the ancient empire of Alexander the Great.

7. In the early 14th century, clashes between Ottoman and Byzantine forces were frequent. Which battle marked the first significant victory for the Ottomans?

From Quiz The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

Answer: Battle of Bapheus

The battle of Bapheus, an area between the cities of Nicaea and Nicomedia in Bithynia, took place in 1302 and resulted in an Ottoman victory. After the battle, the Byzantines lost their grip in Bithynia and in the next few decades they were slowly driven out of the area. The siege of Prusa (present-day Bursa) in 1326 was the last campaign Osman participated in before his death, while Constantinople wasn't besieged by the Ottomans until the 15th century. The battle of Manzikert was an important battle between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Turks in 1071, before the rise of the Ottoman state.

8. Ottoman province with local ruling groups in 18th century. Local dynasty (Mohamed Ali) from 1805, under Ottoman sovereignty. British occupation 1882. Declared British Protectorate 1914.

From Quiz Ottoman Empire

Answer: Egypt

Independent 1922.

9. Who was Selim I's more famous son?

From Quiz The Ottoman Sultans

Answer: Suleiman I

Suleiman I was sultan during the heyday of the Ottoman Empire (1520-1566) and is also known as Suleiman the Magnificent.

10. The early Turks were akin to what ancient barbaric tribe?

From Quiz Early Days of the Ottoman Empire

Answer: Mongols

11. What Turkish chieftain brought together his followers into a group that became known to history as the Ottomans?

From Quiz The Ottoman Turks

Answer: Osman

While it was Osman's father, Ertuğrul, who led that exodus of the Ottomans from Central Asia, it was Osman who is credited with being the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. In fact, some believe Osman's birth name was actually the Turkish "Ataman", so it's easy to see how his Turks were named. The name Osman, Arabic in origin, was probably adopted later in life. Osman, who ruled c.1299-1323, is considered to be the first sultan of the Ottoman Empire, although the title of "sultan" was not used until later.

12. A new invention was initiated by Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha, the son-in-law of the Sultan during the Tulip Era. What was the new invention?

From Quiz Tales of Tulips

Answer: First Ottoman language printing press

The printing press itself had been introduced in Istanbul in the late 1400s; the problem, however, was that all of the works that were published there were either in Greek, Hebrew, or Armenian. Ibrahim Muteferrika was a man of many different abilities - he was an astronomer, historian, scholar, economist, and more. While he was working as a diplomat, he began to collect books. In 1726 he received permission from the Grand Vizier and Sultan to print non-religious books. The first book printed by his press was "Vankulu Lügati", which was a 2-volume Arabic-Turkish dictionary. Even though his books were scholarly and scientific in nature, Muteferrika's press met with much opposition by people who made their living copying books, and by 1742 his printing enterprise was closed. The Ottoman language was commonly called Turkish. It was a derived from the Persian and Arabic languages, and used about 88% borrowed words, but was written with the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Ottoman Turkish was the language of the upper class, and was not understood by the common people, who used what was called "raw Turkish".

13. Part of Ottoman province of Damascus. Princedom from 1921 (Hashemite family).

From Quiz Ottoman Empire

Answer: Transjordan

Now the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

14. Who founded the Ottoman Empire?

From Quiz The Ottoman Sultans

Answer: Osman I

From Western Anatolia, this Turkish chieftan united different tribes in their quest to gain possesions from the crumbling Byzantine Empire.

15. The early pagan Turks worshiped the 'Elements of Nature.' Can you name one of them?

From Quiz Early Days of the Ottoman Empire

Answer: Earth & Fire & Water & Air

These were very simple pagan gods that the turks worshipped.

16. What title was traditionally given to a chief of the Ottoman Turks?

From Quiz The Ottoman Turks

Answer: Bey

The word "bey" was Turkish and meant "tribal leader"; a bey ruled a beylik, which was a small principality. As more Turkish groups fled the Mongol invasions, there was eventually an estimated twelve beyliks in the western part of modern-day Turkey. The people called Ottoman Turks today, led by their bey, Ertuðrul, established themselves in Söðüt. The area around the town was actually controlled by the Seljuk Turks at the time, and was located on the outer fringes of the Byzantine Empire. It is believed that Ertuðrul's son, the founder of the Ottoman Empire, was born in Söðüt sometime around 1254. Over time, as other titles were used, a bey became a title for a military or administrative officer. The more commonly known title of the Ottoman emperor, "sultan", was adopted sometime in the 1000s.

17. Who was considered to be the leader of the Janissaries?

From Quiz Tales of the Janissary

Answer: Sultan

Janissaries were taught to consider their group as their family; while the Sultan owned the Janissaries who were known as "kapikulu", or "door slaves", they were also considered to be members of his family and he was their father. The main expectation of the group was to be loyal to him, and serve as his bodyguards and household troops. Their pay was authorized by the Sultan, who, dressed as a Janissary trooper, would visit their barracks on payday, receiving his pay as well. In times of peace, Janissaries would serve as policemen, firemen, and, of course, guards of the royal palace. During wartime, they were led by the Sultan himself and, as the only infantry troops in the army, protected him during battle.

18. Europe wasn't the only area that tempted the Ottomans under Suleiman: territorial disputes with the Persians led to more than twenty years of warfare. What major Mesopotamian city did the Ottomans capture in 1534?

From Quiz The Ottoman Empire Under Suleiman I

Answer: Baghdad

These wars occurred early in the time of the Safavid dynasty, which would rule Persia for more than two hundred years. It was natural that the Ottomans and the Safavids would oppose each other, given their close proximity. Making matters worse, the Safavids were pursuing an alliance with the hated Habsburgs, and assassinated one of their own governors for being friendly toward Suleiman. Suleiman's Grand Vizier, Ibrahim Pasha, launched the first campaign of the war in 1532. The Safavid shah, Tahmasp I, withdrew his troops ahead of the Pasha, burning fields and villages in a scorched-earth strategy. Nevertheless, the Ottomans took Baghdad (now the capital of Iraq) and would hold it for eighty-nine years. This was a vital link in the sultans' quest for legitimacy as Islamic caliphs; the Abbasid caliphate had been based in Baghdad.

19. Which Russian Tsar coined the term 'the sick man of Europe' to describe the Ottoman Empire?

From Quiz The Ottoman Sultans

Answer: Tsar Nicholas I

The Tsar used this phrase when talking to the British ambassador during a state dinner. On another occasion he used the expression of the Austrian Empire ... It is possible, however, that the phrase is older.

20. When the Arabs of the Islamic Caliphate arrived in the Middle East, Turkish power crumbled. A century afterwards, the Turks renounced their pagan beliefs and embraced Islam. What century was this?

From Quiz Early Days of the Ottoman Empire

Answer: 900s

The Arabs of the Islamic Caliphate were led by Seljuk Chieftains. The Seljuks later came to rule over the lands of the Islamic Caliphate.

21. What Byzantine city did the Sultan Mehmet conquer in 1453 using the recently-invented cannon?

From Quiz The Ottoman Turks

Answer: Constantinople

As the empire ruled by the Ottoman Turks expanded, they moved closer and closer to the land that had been claimed by the Byzantine Empire. When the Byzantine city of Bursa fell in 1326, it signaled the end of Byzantine control in northern Turkey. As Ottoman expansion continued to be successful, it wasn't very long before the conquest of the city of Constantinople became a reasonable objective; the city had been gravely weakened during the Fourth Crusade and hadn't really recovered. In addition it is estimated that the Black Death that ravaged Europe from 1346-49 killed about half of the city's population. The Ottoman leader, Mehmed II, known as Mehmed the Conqueror, took advantage of a disagreement between the eastern and western Christian churches and the fact that he had at his disposal a huge cannon that would shoot 1200-pound cannon balls. The siege of the city lasted for 53 days before it was taken. Mehmed II made Constantinople his new capital. Many different names were used for the city during Ottoman rule, but eventually it became known as Istanbul.

22. Janissaries eventually learned to use a variety of weapons. When the group was first established, however, what was their role in the military?

From Quiz Tales of the Janissary

Answer: Infantry archers

After completing their seen-year period of indoctrination and service, during which time they also served as laborers for the family with whom they lived, the Janissary-in-training would be taken to a training camp. Here his skills would be assessed and he could be placed in a number of situations. The very intelligent would be sent for further education, some who were more advanced than others might be selected for different Janissary corps, and others would have another six years of specialized training. While training in the use of a variety of weapons was given, Janissaries initially became expert archers and the bow became their main weapon. Originally they did not comprise the largest number of fighters in the Sultan's army - that division was the cavalry unit. It is estimated that in the 1300s about 1000 Janissaries were in the Ottoman army, and by the late 1400s the number rose to about 6,000. Of course, when firearms became available, Janissaries also became competent in their use; in fact, it didn't take as long to train a soldier to use a firearm as it did to become an excellent archer. Other training involved learning to use swords, daggers, axes, and pole weapons. In the Ottoman army, the Cebeci formed a corps responsible for the upkeep and transport of weapons, and the Derbendjis guarded roads, mountain passes, and other important locations.

23. Which sultan ruled during the Tulip Age in the Ottoman Empire?

From Quiz Tales of Tulips

Answer: Ahmed III

Ahmed III was the son of Sultan Mehmed IV and his Greek wife, Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Sultan, and ruled the Ottoman Empire for twenty-seven years from 1703-1730. Although Ottoman territory had been lost in the Treaty of Passarowitz, his army had been able to gain land previously lost, as well as conquer part of Persia. His reign is best known, however, because of the Tulip Era, during which time his daughter, Fatma Sultan, and her husband, the Grand Vizier, were allowed to initiate many cultural changes in the Ottoman court. After working for fifteen years to solidify his claim to the throne, it appears that Ahmed III was ready to sit back, relax, and let his son-in-law and daughter rule. In fact, some sources even believe Fatma Sultan was the real ruler of the Tulip Era.

24. Mehmed the Conqueror launched many campaigns throughout his reign. Where was his next campaign after the fall of Constantinople?

From Quiz The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

Answer: Serbia

After the fall of Constantinople, Mehmed planned to conquer Hungary, but at that time the Serbian monarch Durad Brankovic refused to pay tribute. The Ottoman forces invaded Serbia and besieged Belgrade unsuccessfully in 1456. While securing Serbia in 1459, the Despotate of Morea did not pay tribute and revolted against the Ottoman Empire. The same thing happened in Wallachia in 1462, forcing Mehmed to lead his forces against Vlad the Impaler.

25. Mediterranean shipping was vital to the Ottomans, and under Suleiman they maintained an immense navy. Their greatest admiral, Hayreddin Pasha, shared a nickname with a 12th-century Holy Roman Emperor. What was the nickname?

From Quiz The Ottoman Empire Under Suleiman I

Answer: Barbarossa

"Barbarossa" is Italian for "red beard", the nickname was given to Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I as a sign of respect. Hayreddin Pasha's older brother, Baba Aruj, also had a red beard, and picked up the nickname as a Europeanization of his Turkish name; when he died, the name stuck to his younger brother. Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa (c. 1478-1546) was a phenomenally skilled admiral and privateer. His efforts in the Mediterranean were crucial in the Ottoman fight against the Habsburgs, and were a cornerstone of the anti-Habsburg alliance between the Ottomans and the French. Among his efforts, he assisted the flight of tens of thousands of Moors from southern Spain, which had become deeply hostile to them after the Christian conquest.

26. Independent kingdom under Kajar dynasty 1794-1925. British and Russian influence, culminating in agreement on spheres of influence 1907.

From Quiz Ottoman Empire

Answer: Iran

Deposed Kajar shahs and proclaimed Reza Shah Pahlavi 1925.

27. Which sultan drowned his entire harem of over 300 women in a fit of jealousy and rage?

From Quiz The Ottoman Sultans

Answer: Sultan Ibrahim

He had them all tied up in sacks and thrown into the Bosporus.

28. The Arabs quickly discerned the qualities of the Turkish Seljuks. Besides self-discipline and foresight, what combative skill, and unit, did the Arabs admire?

From Quiz Early Days of the Ottoman Empire

Answer: Horse Archers

If any of you have played Age of Empires 2, the game is misleading in its classification of Janissaries. Janissaries were acutally clave warriors that used scimitars instead of hand cannons.

29. What influential Ottoman sultan won the nicknames 'Magnificent' and 'Lawgiver'?

From Quiz The Ottoman Turks

Answer: Suleiman

Suleiman was also the longest-ruling leader of the Ottoman Turks, serving for almost 46 years from 1520-66. He was quite a magnificent conqueror, and that sobriquet was given to him by people in the West. He amassed an empire that was located on three continents, and covered approximately 877,888 square miles, making Suleiman one of the most powerful rulers in Europe at the time. His reign is considered to represent the peak of the Ottoman Empire. Suleiman's own people, however, called him "Kanuni", or "The Lawgiver". His legal reforms created more of a balance between the sultan's law (Kanun) and the Sharia, or religious law. It was a difficult task to create new laws that did not diminish the importance of Islamic religious laws, but his code, commonly called the Ottoman Laws, was used for three hundred years.

30. What tradition within the Janissary corps is considered to be the first in the world?

From Quiz Tales of the Janissary

Answer: Military marching band

Considered to be the first military marching band in the world and known by a variety of terms, the existence of Janissary "mehters" was first mentioned in the 13th century. The term "mehter" is typically used to describe only one of the musicians in a group; it is believed that the first mehter was sent as a gift to Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. Over time, Janissaries were the musicians who made up the band, and the music they played was known as Janissary music. Featuring drums, cymbals, bells, and horns, the band (mehterhane) even influenced European composers, such as Mozart and Beethoven.

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