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Quiz about The E Word
Quiz about The E Word

The "E" Word Trivia Quiz


This quiz will test you on a variety of concepts - related to various world religions - whose names begin with the letter E.
This is a renovated/adopted version of an old quiz by author noregap

A photo quiz by LadyNym. Estimated time: 3 mins.
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Author
LadyNym
Time
3 mins
Type
Photo Quiz
Quiz #
41,761
Updated
Aug 11 23
# Qns
10
Difficulty
Average
Avg Score
8 / 10
Plays
372
Awards
Top 20% Quiz
Last 3 plays: Guest 174 (9/10), Guest 97 (8/10), Guest 104 (5/10).
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Question 1 of 10
1. Which of these E words is both a key Buddhist concept and an 18th-century intellectual movement? Hint


Question 2 of 10
2. The word epistle is usually associated with which major Christian saint? Hint


Question 3 of 10
3. What branch of theology or history of religion would deal with Armageddon, Ragnarök and Kalki, the tenth avatar of Vishnu? Hint


Question 4 of 10
4. Meant to drive away malevolent spirits from a person or place, the ritual of exorcism is practiced in most world religions. True or false?


Question 5 of 10
5. Which of these Latin phrases is a technical term used in connection with the notion of infallibility of the Pope? Hint


Question 6 of 10
6. Eid al-Fitr is one of Islam's two official holidays. When is it celebrated?


Question 7 of 10
7. Which of these books of the Old Testament is known in Hebrew as Kohelet? Hint


Question 8 of 10
8. In what dualistic Asian religion is evil identified with a spirit by the name of Angra Mainyu (Ahriman)? Hint


Question 9 of 10
9. The Kabbalah, Gnosticism and Theosophy are all examples of what form of spirituality, usually restricted to a group of select few? Hint


Question 10 of 10
10. Which of these statements about the purpose of excommunication in the Catholic Church is true? Hint



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Quiz Answer Key and Fun Facts
1. Which of these E words is both a key Buddhist concept and an 18th-century intellectual movement?

Answer: enlightenment

The concept of spiritual enlightenment is shared by a number of Eastern religions. The English term is chiefly used to translate the Sanskrit "bodhi", which refers to the knowledge, wisdom or awakened intellect of someone who has attained Buddhahood. In the West, the Buddhist concept of enlightenment has been explained as a sudden insight into a transcendental truth, leading to the recognition of one's true self. Enlightenment can also translate other Buddhist terms, such as "satori" (used in Japanese Zen Buddhism) and "moksha" (also used in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism).

The Age of Enlightenment ("Siècle des Lumières" in French), also known as the Age of Reason, coincided with most of the 18th century - traditionally the period between Louis XIV's death in 1715 and the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789. As an intellectual and philosophical movement, it often entered in conflict with organized religion - in particular the Catholic Church - sometimes also questioning or rejecting the very notion of religious belief. The modern concepts of religious tolerance and the separation of church and state are both legacies of the Enlightenment.

Exegesis is the critical interpretation of a text, and is generally used in relation to Biblical works. The Eucharist is also known as Holy Communion, while epiphany is the manifestation of a divine or supernatural being - as in the revelation of the incarnation of Christ celebrated by Christianity on 6 January.

The photo shows the Great Buddha of Kamakura (Japan), a large 13th-century bronze statue of Buddha.
2. The word epistle is usually associated with which major Christian saint?

Answer: St. Paul

Epistle (from the Greek "epistolé", meaning "letter") refers to a letter written in a formal style with didactic intent. In Ancient Rome, the epistle became a major literary genre, practiced by many great authors and thinkers both in prose and verse. Therefore, it is not surprising that, with the advent of Christianity, epistles became a primary vehicle for instructing and discussing matters of faith.

Epistles form the bulk of the 27 books of the New Testament. The most numerous are the 13 Pauline epistles, ascribed to St. Paul - though there is still some disagreement among scholars concerning the authorship of some of them, even if they were all written in Paul's name. The seven epistles that are considered genuinely authored by Paul are Galatians, 1 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Romans, Philippians, and Philemon. Hebrews, which is anonymous, was for a long time attributed to Paul, but modern scholars now believe that its unknown author imitated the Apostle's style.

The remaining seven epistles in the New Testament are called general or "catholic" (universal). Though traditionally attributed to various Apostles (two to Peter, one to James, and one to Jude), they are now widely believed to have been written by people who had the same name as those three followers of Jesus. On the other hand, the three so-called Johannine epistles, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist, are anonymous, and their authorship remains unclear.

The painting in the photo, by French Baroque painter Valentin de Boulogne, depicts St. Paul writing his epistles.
3. What branch of theology or history of religion would deal with Armageddon, Ragnarök and Kalki, the tenth avatar of Vishnu?

Answer: eschatology

Eschatology is a word of Greek origin (from "eschatos", meaning "last") that refers to the various doctrines concerning "end times" - which can mean the end of the present age, of human history, or even of the world itself. In the majority of world religions, both past and present, these end times are generally viewed as an event prophesied in sacred texts that is expected to occur in the future. When talking about eschatology, scholars make a distinction between religions with a linear cosmology (such as the Abrahamic religions) and those with a cyclic cosmology (such as the religions of the Indian subcontinent).

In Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, the end times coincide with the end of the world and the Last Judgment. Armageddon (from Hebrew "Har Megiddo"), a location mentioned several times in the Old Testament, and only once in the Book of Revelation (16:16), has become synonymous with a great battle that will usher the end of the world - described in great detail in the final book of the New Testament. The photo shows the most famous of Albrecht Dürer's illustrations of the Book of Revelation, "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse".

In Hinduism, on the other hand, time is cyclical, consisting of "kalpas" (aeons), each of which comprises four ages ("yugas") - periods of creation, preservation and decline. The chaos at the end of Kali Yuga, the fourth age, will end with the arrival of Kalki, the tenth and final incarnation of Vishnu, who will restore righteousness upon the earth. The ancient Norse religion (which is still practiced under the name of Heathenry) also had a cyclical cosmology: Ragnarök, the Twilight of the Gods, will mark the destruction of the old world, and the birth of a new one.

Epistemology is the theory of knowledge, while ethology is the science of animal behaviour, and entomology the study of insects.
4. Meant to drive away malevolent spirits from a person or place, the ritual of exorcism is practiced in most world religions. True or false?

Answer: True

Most world religions believe in the existence of malevolent entities capable of possessing people or places, wreaking such havoc that they need to be banished. Because of that, exorcism-like rituals are practiced in many parts of the world. In Christianity, such entities are called demons - a term that encompasses fallen angels and pagan deities. In Islam they are known as djinn (genies), which, like Christian demons, have a complex hierarchy.

In Eastern religions, the entities that possess people or places may be restless ghosts, though demons - often with monstrous appearances - are amply featured in Hinduism and Buddhism. The "oni" of Japanese folklore are monstrous demonic creatures ("yokai") that are banished in the ritual of "tsuina" - derived from Chinese folk religion - which involves the throwing of roasted soybeans at people wearing masks like the one in the photo. Shinto also has a sort of exorcism ritual known as "harae", a rite of purification from evil, sins, and bad luck performed before worship. In Tibetan Buddhism, a religious ceremony called Gutor, traditionally held on the 29th day of the 12th Tibetan month, is dedicated to exorcising ghosts, evil spirits, and negativity in general.

The best-known form of exorcism is the one practiced in the Catholic Church - familiar to many people because of William Friedkin's 1973 film "The Exorcist", which is based on a real-life occurrence. Like the characters in the film, a Catholic exorcist must be an ordained priest, who performs the rite in the name of Jesus Christ; the exorcism formula includes a prayer to Saint Michael, the arch enemy of demons.
5. Which of these Latin phrases is a technical term used in connection with the notion of infallibility of the Pope?

Answer: ex cathedra

Ex cathedra literally means "from the chair", referring to the Chair of Saint Peter. When the Pope communicates a doctrine or theological concept ex cathedra, he speaks with the full authority of his office, and what he says is deemed free from error. The doctrine of the Pope's infallibility was defined as a dogma in the First Vatican Council, held in 1869-1870 under Pius IX. For teachings to be infallible, they must be believed as divinely revealed (such as the sayings of Jesus in the Gospels) and held definitively (such as Transubstantiation and the Seal of Confession). Belief in papal infallibility is considered a requirement of the Catholic faith, and those who object to it from within the Church are usually sanctioned. Other Christian denominations reject the dogma entirely.

The Latin word "cathedra" originally referred to a teacher's chair with arms; in Italian, "cattedra" means teacher's desk. In the Catholic, Anglican, and Orthodox Churches, cathedra refers to a bishop's seat, the symbol of his authority. The principal church of a diocese, which holds such a seat, came to be known as "cathedral". The photo shows the cathedra of the Pope as Bishop of Rome in the apse of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, one of the four major papal basilicas, and the cathedral of the diocese of Rome.

Of the remaining three phrases, only "ex nihilo" has a religious connection, as it means "out of nothing", and generally refers to God's creation of the universe from nothingness.
6. Eid al-Fitr is one of Islam's two official holidays. When is it celebrated?

Answer: at the end of Ramadan

As the meaning of its name implies, Eid al-Fitr ("Holiday of Breaking the Fast") marks the end of Ramadan, the month-long period of fasting from dawn to sunset observed by Muslims worldwide. The celebration of Eid al-Fitr coincides with the first day of Shawwal, the tenth month of the Islamic calendar. Though it is not mentioned in the Koran, according to Muslim tradition the holiday was established by the Prophet Muhammad after migrating from Mecca to Medina.

Eid al-Fitr begins at sunset, and celebrations can last up to three days. Before the Eid prayer, it is mandatory to give a gift of money to the poor and the needy. Homes are decorated, and mosques are brightly lit (as shown in the photo, which depicts a mosque in the Russian city of Kazan). A major component of the celebrations is food: people lay out lavish buffets of specially prepared foods for family and friends that come to visit. In particular, the abundance and variety of sweet dishes prepared and consumed during this holiday is such that Eid al-Fitr is also known as "sweet Eid".

The other major Muslim holiday, Eid al-Adha ("Feast of the Sacrifice"), which is celebrated during the final month of the Islamic calendar, commemorates Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac. It is also called "Salty Eid" because of its emphasis on the consumption of meats and other savoury dishes. Though Eid al-Adha is the larger of the two holidays, lasting four days, Eid al-Fitr boasts a wider variety of celebrations throughout the Muslim world.
7. Which of these books of the Old Testament is known in Hebrew as Kohelet?

Answer: Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Kohelet, the name of its author as stated at the beginning of the book. In Hebrew, the word derives from "kahal" (assembly), which in Greek is translated as "ekklesia". In some English translations of the Bible (such as the KJV), Kohelet is rendered as "the Preacher". As the author declares himself to be "son of David", the book has been traditionally ascribed to Solomon, who wrote it in his old age - though it was very probably written much later than the time in which Solomon is believed to have reigned (10 century BC). The book of Ecclesiastes is one of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), while in the Christian Old Testament it is one of the seven sapiential (wisdom) books.

Ecclesiastes is presented as its author's biography, following the ancient Middle Eastern tradition of the fictional autobiography - in which the narrator's experiences are used for didactic purposes. The book's content can be interpreted as life-affirming or deeply pessimistic, in particular in its observations on human ambition and the purpose of life. Many quotations from the book have found their way in Western culture. One of them, which appears in 1:2 and 12:8, is "vanity of vanities; all is vanity" - from which a genre of allegorical art, especially popular in the 16th and 17th centuries, originated. A Vanitas painting is usually a kind of still life involving imagery (such as skulls) that symbolizes the ephemeral quality of human life.

The Vanitas painting in the photo, by 17th-century Dutch artist Jan Vermeulen, contains two quotes from Ecclesiastes, written on two sheets of paper: "Mors omnia vincit" (Death conquers all) and "Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas" (Vanity of vanities, all is vanity).
8. In what dualistic Asian religion is evil identified with a spirit by the name of Angra Mainyu (Ahriman)?

Answer: Zoroastrianism

One of the oldest world religions still practiced today, Zoroastrianism is believed to have been founded as early as in the mid-2nd millennium BC. Its name stems from its spiritual founder, an Iranian prophet named Zoroaster (Zarathustra). Though considered a monotheistic religion, Zoroastrianism has a dualistic cosmology in which an uncreated, benevolent supreme being, Ahura Mazda ("Lord of Wisdom") has its antithesis in Angra Mainyu (Ahriman in Middle Persian), whose name can be translated as "chaotic/destructive mind".

Although Angra Mainyu is not exactly Ahura Mazda's equal, in the various stages of Zoroastrianism it appears to be a very powerful force. While Ahura Mazda is associated with light and fire, and his life force is truth ("Asha"), Angra Mainyu dwells in darkness, and is identified with falsehood and deceit ("Druj"). The relationship between these two entities, however, has changed in the various stages of development of the Zoroastrian faith. In some sources, both principles have always existed, and Angra Mainyu is the creator of all evil things - while in others Angra Mainyu is an emanation of Ahura Mazda, the twin of Spenta Mainyu, the "Bounteous Spirit". In any case, Zoroastrians believe that the struggle between good and evil will end with the destruction of evil and the renovation of the universe ("Frashokereti").

The image in the photo is the best-known symbol of Zoroastrianism, known as Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of the "fravashi", the personal spirit of every individual.
9. The Kabbalah, Gnosticism and Theosophy are all examples of what form of spirituality, usually restricted to a group of select few?

Answer: esotericism

The term esotericism (from the Greek word for "within") encompasses a wide range of spiritual beliefs and practices that are present in both Western and Eastern traditions. As its etymology implies, esoteric doctrines are meant to be understood by a limited number of people, the members of a special group who usually have to undergo some kind of initiation ritual. The concept of esoteric knowledge already existed before the advent of Christianity; many well-known esoteric philosophical and religious systems that diverged from mainstream Christianity - such as Hermeticism, Gnosticism, and Neoplatonism - originated in Late Antiquity. However, esotericism as a word was introduced in the 1820s, together with a number of alternative religious groups.

The Kabbalah, rooted in Jewish mysticism, was a major influence on Western esotericism, especially during the Renaissance - a golden age for esoteric thinkers, who syncretized elements of Christian and Jewish thought with "pagan" (mostly Greek and Arabic) elements. In the 19th century, as a reaction to the dominant philosophy of positivism, esoteric movements thrived in the West. The term "occultism" (from the Latin for "hidden"), denoting a wide range of esoteric beliefs and practices, was introduced in English in the late 19th century by Helena Blavatsky, the founder of the Theosophical Society. Occultism is frequently identified with various types of magic - as represented by the tarot card in the photo, part of the Rider-Waite tarot deck developed in 1910 for the secret society known as Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Movements such as New Age and modern paganism such as Wicca are all contemporary forms of esotericism.

Esoteric movements and schools have existed for centuries in various parts of Asia, from the Islamic world to Japan. One of the best-known of these traditions is Hindu Tantrism.

While epicureanism and empiricism are schools of philosophical thought, ecumenism is the promotion of unity and cooperation among the world's Christian denominations.
10. Which of these statements about the purpose of excommunication in the Catholic Church is true?

Answer: it is meant to as an invitation to repent

Many of the world's religions practice forms of censure or exclusion from the religious community of individuals that commit serious transgressions. The term excommunication, however, refers to the Christian practice of excluding from certain activities (such as receiving sacraments, as the word implies) those members of the religious community whose behaviour goes against Christian beliefs.

In the past, most of the people who were excommunicated by the Church were heretics - whose teachings ran counter to Christian orthodoxy - or rulers who entered in conflict with Church authorities. Those who are familiar with medieval history know that, for a monarch, being excommunicated was a very serious matter, as it inevitably undermined their authority. The painting in the photo, depicting the excommunication of Frankish king Robert the Pious (painted by French 19th-century painter Jean-Paul Laurens), illustrates the chilling effect of the Church's decree - with the extinguished candle (part of the ritual of excommunication) lying on the ground, and the terrified faces of the sovereign and his wife, abandoned by their court.

Under current Catholic canon law, excommunication can only be imposed on a member of the Catholic community. An excommunicated person is excluded from receiving the sacraments, and - if a member of the clergy - from celebrating any ceremonies of worship, or exercising any ecclesiastical offices or functions. They are not, however, prevented from attending Mass, let alone entering a church building, nor do they lose the effects of baptism, whose mark is indelible. Excommunication is considered a "medicinal" penalty, not a "vindictive" or "expiatory" one, and is thus meant to persuade a person to repent - that is, abandon the behaviour or attitude that caused them to be excluded from full communion with the Church.
Source: Author LadyNym

This quiz was reviewed by FunTrivia editor looney_tunes before going online.
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