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Quiz about Drugs Chemical Cures Comforts and Cautions
Quiz about Drugs Chemical Cures Comforts and Cautions

Drugs: Chemical Cures Comforts and Cautions Quiz


Drugs, where would we be without them? So many people owe their lives to drugs, literally. This quiz looks at many of the drugs available in the twenty-first century.

A multiple-choice quiz by Tarkowski. Estimated time: 4 mins.
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Author
Tarkowski
Time
4 mins
Type
Multiple Choice
Quiz #
411,222
Updated
Dec 18 22
# Qns
10
Difficulty
Average
Avg Score
8 / 10
Plays
324
Last 3 plays: Guest 104 (9/10), Guest 184 (5/10), Guest 69 (10/10).
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Question 1 of 10
1. Acetylsalicylic acid is an effective analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reducer). It was developed from willow tree bark, and is the main content of which widely used medicine? Hint


Question 2 of 10
2. People who are suffering from minor aches and fever make use of a wide range of drugs usually classified as NSAIDs. The abbreviation stands for Hint


Question 3 of 10
3. Some people who are allergic to aspirin opt for acetaminophen containing drugs, which do not cause stomach bleeding. Which of the following does NOT contain acetaminophen? Hint


Question 4 of 10
4. Common cold drugs are found everywhere: from small convenience stores to large warehouses. But there is not yet a cure for a cold as it is caused by a virus.


Question 5 of 10
5. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, the leading causes of death were infectious diseases, but by 2000 most of the infectious diseases could be cured and rarely did they lead to death. This improvement was a result of the introduction of which of these? Hint


Question 6 of 10
6. Alexander Fleming, a Scottish microbiologist working in the University of London was studying bacterial cultures of Staphylococcus aureus when he realized that one of the cultures had been contaminated with a mold. Instead of discarding the culture he studied it further, observing that the bacteria had been destroyed around the mold. What name was given to the active substance Fleming eventually extracted from the mold?

Answer: (One word of 10 letters)
Question 7 of 10
7. Another important group of antibiotics is the tetracyclines. These compounds inhibit bacterial growth by wrapping up which important cell component, responsible for protein synthesis? Hint


Question 8 of 10
8. Regardless of the years scientists have devoted to battling cancer, it remains a deadly disease. What is the main reason why it is difficult to find an effective cure for cancer? Hint


Question 9 of 10
9. One the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system is hypertension (high blood pressure). Many people have hypertension without realizing it because it has few characteristic symptoms. The most effective cure for hypertension is what class of drugs? Hint


Question 10 of 10
10. The most commonly abused drugs are psychotropic drugs: drugs that affect the human mind. Which of the following psychotic drugs reduces the level of consciousness and response to the environment? Hint



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Quiz Answer Key and Fun Facts
1. Acetylsalicylic acid is an effective analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reducer). It was developed from willow tree bark, and is the main content of which widely used medicine?

Answer: Aspirin

Aspirin is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. After hundreds of years of using the willow tree bark to treat fevers, salicylic acid was isolated as the active substance it contained, and was used instead of the bark. But when taken orally, stomach cramps could result.

Other forms of salicylic acid, such as salol and sodium salicylate, were synthesized, but they still had some undesirable qualities. In 1853 acetylsalicylic acid was produced by reacting salicylic acid with acetic anhydride, and was introduced as a drug in 1899 by the German Baeyer Company under the brand name of aspirin.
2. People who are suffering from minor aches and fever make use of a wide range of drugs usually classified as NSAIDs. The abbreviation stands for

Answer: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

The term differentiates them from the more dangerous steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (steroids) like cortisone and prednisone.

The human body produces prostaglandins, which regulate many biochemical processes in the body and send pain messages to the brain, in all its tissues. By inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, NSAIDS relieve pain; therefore, NSAIDS do not actually cure pain, but kill the messengers. Pyrogens, fever inducing substances, are also produced by the prostaglandins, so NSAIDS also reduce fevers. Some common NSAIDS include aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen.
3. Some people who are allergic to aspirin opt for acetaminophen containing drugs, which do not cause stomach bleeding. Which of the following does NOT contain acetaminophen?

Answer: Penicillin

Although acetaminophen containing drugs are effective analgesics, they are not effective against inflammations and are not anticoagulants like NSAIDS.

Arachidonic acid, a component of human cell membranes, breaks down to prostaglandins. This conversion is catalyzed by enzymes called COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is found in the stomach and kidney while COX-2 occurs where there is an inflammation. NSAIDS inhibit both. Another enzyme, COX-3, also acts like COX-1, and is inhibited by acetaminophen. Penicillin is obtained from fungal molds.
4. Common cold drugs are found everywhere: from small convenience stores to large warehouses. But there is not yet a cure for a cold as it is caused by a virus.

Answer: True

Cold medicines contain antihistamines, which relieve symptoms of allergies--which are also cold symptoms--like sneezing and coughing.

When an allergen enters the body, it binds to the surface of the cell causing them to release histamines which cause itchiness and swelling and other symptoms of allergies. Antihistamines prevent cells from producing histamine, and so control the symptoms of cold.

Narcotics like codeine and dextrometrophan are effective cough suppressants. Cough suppression is only advisable when the cough interferes with required activities like sleep. Otherwise, they are better left as the respiratory system rids itself of congestion through coughing.
5. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, the leading causes of death were infectious diseases, but by 2000 most of the infectious diseases could be cured and rarely did they lead to death. This improvement was a result of the introduction of which of these?

Answer: Antibacterial drugs

In the aforementioned centuries, infections went untreated and normally resulted in further infections and ultimately to death. In fact quite a lot of wounded soldiers in the American Civil War died from bacterial infections, and even President James Garfield died from secondary infections when he sustained a bullet wound.

Antibacterial drugs were introduced in the 1930s, and the first was a sulfa drug. The simplest sulfa drug is sulfanilamide which is similar in structure to para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a substance used by bacteria to make folic acid for their growth. Since bacteria cannot distinguish between PABA and sulfanilamide, they incorporate the latter into a false folic acid that cannot help them grow. Thus, they cease to grow.

Antibiotics were known as miracle drugs. Before 1941, people who had major bacterial infections had a poor survival rate. Now, it is mostly elderly people and AIDS patients die from such infections.
6. Alexander Fleming, a Scottish microbiologist working in the University of London was studying bacterial cultures of Staphylococcus aureus when he realized that one of the cultures had been contaminated with a mold. Instead of discarding the culture he studied it further, observing that the bacteria had been destroyed around the mold. What name was given to the active substance Fleming eventually extracted from the mold?

Answer: Penicillin

The crude extracts of penicillin produced by Fleming were improved by Oxford's Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Florey. The trio of Fleming, Chain and Florey won the 1945 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for their work on penicillin.

Various substances with similar molecular structure, such as amoxicillin and penicillin G, are also regarded as penicillin relatives. But they are quite different: bacteria killed by one may be resistant to another.

Mucoproteins, polymers of amino acids and sugars, are the main components of bacterial cell walls. When penicillin comes in contact with the cell walls, it prevents the mucoprotein molecules from joining together thereby leaving holes in the bacterial cell walls. The bacteria then swell and burst. Human cells are not made of mucoprotein, so they are not affected by penicillin.
7. Another important group of antibiotics is the tetracyclines. These compounds inhibit bacterial growth by wrapping up which important cell component, responsible for protein synthesis?

Answer: Ribosomes

The first tetracycline, aureomycin, was produced in 1948 by Benjamin Duggor from a strain of bacteria called Streptomyces aureofaciens. Pfizer Laboratories further isolated another tetracycline which they called terramycin. Tetrayclines are effective against a wide range of bacteria.

The cell walls provide support and protection to the cell; the mitochondria are also called the power house of the cell, and they supply energy to the cell by breaking down glucose; while the vacuoles stores food and water in the cell. Ribosomes make proteins for the cells, so they also influence the growth of cells. Tetrayclines bind bacterial ribosomes, but not that of mammals. But they do cause discoloration of permanent teeth in children because calcium ions combine with some parts of tetracycline molecules.
8. Regardless of the years scientists have devoted to battling cancer, it remains a deadly disease. What is the main reason why it is difficult to find an effective cure for cancer?

Answer: Drugs that kill cancer cells can damage normal cells as well.

The main reason for cancer research is to find a way to get rid of cancer cells without adversely affecting the normal body cells because cancer cells have a lot in common with the normal body cells.

Antimetabolites are a group of chemicals that help to fight cancer without destroying the body cells. Rapidly dividing cells like cancer cells require a lot of DNA. Antimetabolites prevent the production of DNA blocking the increase of cancer cells. Normal cells are less affected by antimetabolites as they divide less rapidly compared to cancerous cells, but rapidly dividing normal cells like hair cells are affected. And that is why many cancer patients undergoing treatment lose their hair. Examples of antimetabolites are cisplatin, 5-fluorodeoxyuridune and 5-fluorouracil.
9. One the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system is hypertension (high blood pressure). Many people have hypertension without realizing it because it has few characteristic symptoms. The most effective cure for hypertension is what class of drugs?

Answer: diuretics

The human blood consists mainly of water. In mammals water is reabsorbed into the bloodstream from the PCT (proximal convoluted tubule) of the kidney under the influence of a hormone called ADH (antidiuretic hormone). So when there is no ADH, all the water in the PCT of the kidney is excreted. That is exactly what diuretics do: they prevent the reabsorption of water thereby reducing the volume of blood in circulation. This in turn reduces the pressure exerted by blood in the vessels.

The major causes of hypertension are hardening of the arteries, deposited fats and cholesterol in the arteries, and emotional stress. A healthy diet and lots of aerobic exercise can reduce the chances of developing hypertension and relieve sufferers as well.
10. The most commonly abused drugs are psychotropic drugs: drugs that affect the human mind. Which of the following psychotic drugs reduces the level of consciousness and response to the environment?

Answer: Depressants

Most drugs act on both the body and mind, but psychotic drugs act mainly on the mind. Stimulants increase alertness, mental activity, speed, and bring about feelings of wellbeing and include cocaine and amphetamines. Mindbenders or hallucinogens like marijuana and LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) distort the sense of judgement and line of thought. Opium and morphine are the most well known narcotics and result in stupor and general pain relief. Depressants like alcohol and barbiturates dull reaction and produce tranquility. Alcohol is usually mistaken for a stimulant, but the elating effects it produces are a result of caring of the nerves.

Among the biggest benefits of psychotic drugs is their usefulness in correcting certain types of mental illness, although long term use of most also has far reaching effects.
Source: Author Tarkowski

This quiz was reviewed by FunTrivia editor rossian before going online.
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