Quiz about A Sad Finish 2
Quiz about A Sad Finish 2

A Sad Finish 2 Trivia Quiz


Archaeologists work to uncover ancient sites and analyze artifacts and other remains that are found. See if you can identify the following archaeological sites in South America, spectacular in their heyday, that are now threatened or in ruins.

A matching quiz by ponycargirl. Estimated time: 4 mins.
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Author
ponycargirl
Time
4 mins
Type
Match Quiz
Quiz #
389,207
Updated
Dec 03 21
# Qns
10
Difficulty
Average
Avg Score
8 / 10
Plays
357
Awards
Top 10% Quiz
Mobile instructions: Press on an answer on the right. Then, press on the gray box it matches on the left.
(a) Drag-and-drop from the right to the left, or (b) click on a right side answer box and then on a left side box to move it.
QuestionsChoices
1. Peru--Geoglyphis--Geometric/Zoomorphic/Phytomorphic   
Rapa Nui
2. Peru--Intihuatana Stone--Inca emperor Pachacuti  
Machu Pichu
3. Chile--Moai--Rano Raraku  
Nazca Lines
4. Colombia--Burial and ceremonial site--Necropolis  
Chan Chan
5. Ecuador--Northern Inca Capital--Royal Palace  
Cueva de las Manos
6. Brazil--Megalith Circle--December Solstice  
Tiwanaku
7. Bolivia--Spiritual Center--Gate of the Sun  
Tumebamba
8. Peru--Norte Chico Civilization--Most ancient city of Americas  
San Agustin
9. Argentina--Cave of the Hands--Hunting Scenes  
Caral
10. Peru--Capital of Chimur Kingdom--Artisans  
Amazon Stonehenge






Quiz Answer Key and Fun Facts
1. Peru--Geoglyphis--Geometric/Zoomorphic/Phytomorphic

Answer: Nazca Lines

A geoglyph is a piece of art produced on the ground that is made using natural materials that are part of the terrain, such as trees, rocks, or the earth itself. Located in the Nazca Desert, there are many theories concerning the purpose of the construction of the geoglyphs that are called Nazca Lines. While some believe that they are somehow related to the religious beliefs of the ancient people, others believe they may have had something to do with finding water in the desert. There are three different types of lines; many are geometric shapes. Others are zoomorphic, which means they are in the shape of animals, such as monkeys, fish, and even humans. The phytomorphic shapes include trees and flowers.

The gravel or stones which cover the terrain of the Nazca plateau are dark in color due to a high content of ferrous oxide; in fact, as the stones were exposed over the centuries, the ferrous oxide caused them to become darker. Simply removing the pebbles reveals a hard sand underneath which is much lighter. Sources describe the construction process in different ways, and, of course, it had to have been labor intensive, however, there was no digging involved (the stones were picked up, were brushed away, or shallow etchings) or piling of stones. The fact that the area is so dry with little wind has left the designs mostly intact for centuries. Of course, the area around the observation tower in the picture is well-traveled, and therefore, disturbed by human presence; it is possible, however, to see the type of stones that cover the plateau.

Weather patterns change over time, and in recent years there has been landslides and flooding in the area. Although the damage is not considered "significant", any damage to the Lines must cause concern. Believe it or not, the Pan American Highway was constructed through the tail of one of the lizard figures. Visitors viewing the site are expected to wear special shoes to avoid damage to the fragile area; in fact, members of Greenpeace have been accused of causing damage by wearing everyday shoes. There are many who visit the Lines in order to pillage for archaeological treasure, and they have caused irreparable damage to the site.
2. Peru--Intihuatana Stone--Inca emperor Pachacuti

Answer: Machu Pichu

Built in approximately 1450, historians believe that Machu Pichu was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti, and perhaps his son, Túpac Inca Yupanqui. The Intihuatana Stone is part of a group of stones that were built to face toward the sun during the winter solstice.

It was believed that the stone held the sun in place as it made its way across the sky, and is thought to have served as a type of clock or calendar. The city, which was never found by Spanish conquistadors, is believed to have been depopulated within a hundred years of its construction.

Historians believe that this may have been due to a smallpox epidemic, introduced to the area by Europeans, that arrived before they did. In 1911 Hiram Bingham found the city after being guided there by native people. Today, nearly half a million tourists visit the area, and structures built to accommodate them - a luxury hotel, cable car, and the like - threaten the site.

The area is also subject at times to heavy rains, landslides, and earthquakes.
3. Chile--Moai--Rano Raraku

Answer: Rapa Nui

Located in Chile on Easter Island, it is believed that Rano Raraku was used as a quarry for hundreds of years, and supplied the material for 95% of the moai, monolithic, human statues that are found on the island. Between 1250-1500 over 900 moai statues, monolithic statues of human figures, were carved by the Rapa Nui people.

Many of the statues are still located near the quarry, although hundreds were placed on stone platforms on the island's periphery. It is unknown why the area was abandoned, however, lack of resources and political upheaval are cited as two possible theories. One of the most serious threats to the moai statues today is environmental - heavy rain, strong winds, and extreme temperatures damage the statues. Cristián Arévalo Pakarati, co-director at the Easter Island Statue Project, has said that in the time he has been working on the project, he has seen twenty-seven of the statues melt into the ground due to varying weather conditions.
4. Colombia--Burial and ceremonial site--Necropolis

Answer: San Agustin

The statues at San Agustin were first seen by a Spanish missionary in 1756 while he was passing through Colombia. It has been very difficult to date the statues, however, most historians believe they were carved sometime between 50-400 AD. Little information is known about the site or the people who made the statues; many of the statues are of animals like gorillas, African elephants, snakes, frogs or birds, and are as tall as 23 feet.

They are believed to be funeral statues that depict the peoples' deities.

Some theorize that the site was the meeting place of two nearby groups, who met there to trade, bury their dead, and worship. Today the site, abandoned about 1350 AD, is believed to be the largest necropolis in the world, as well as the largest collection of religious statues in Latin America. San Agustin has been damaged by looters, as well as earthquakes and soil erosion.
5. Ecuador--Northern Inca Capital--Royal Palace

Answer: Tumebamba

Incan Emperor Huayna Capac, who ruled from 1493-1525, choose Tumebamba to be his northern capital. The city was modeled after the building of Cuzco, and Huayna Capac provided for the building of a royal palace. Although the city was destroyed by a civil war before the Spanish came into the area, they heard stories that the rock to built Tumebamba had been imported from Cuzco; archaeologists have confirmed that some of the building stones for the city traveled almost a thousand miles from Cuzco over the mountains and networks of roads that were in existence, using only human manual labor.

Other stones for building were quarried much closer, just eleven miles away. When the Spanish visited the city in 1547 they wrote that it was already in ruins; the Spanish city of Cuenca was constructed on the site, although some remains of the ancient city have been preserved.
6. Brazil--Megalith Circle--December Solstice

Answer: Amazon Stonehenge

First found late in the 19th century, Amazon Stonehenge, located at the Solstice Archaeological Park, is believed to be somewhere between 500 and 2000 years old. Made from 127 blocks of granite that are about thirteen feet tall, it is believed that the site was used as an observatory, temple, and/or cemetery. One of the megaliths seems to be aligned with the December Solstice; another rock contains a carved hole which allows light to shine on another one of the megaliths. Burial pits have also been found at the site; it is unknown whether it was also used as a cemetery or burial for important leaders. Of course, the existence of the Amazon Stonehenge, as well as similar sites along the great river, suggests that the people who lived in the area were much more advanced than previously thought.

It is unknown why the site was abandoned, and the remote location of the site has helped in its preservation.
7. Bolivia--Spiritual Center--Gate of the Sun

Answer: Tiwanaku

Discovered in 1549 by a Spanish conquistador, historians believe that settlement at Tiwanaku dates back to about 1500 BC, when it was a small farming village. Although sources do not agree on the exact date, they do agree that Tiwanaku became a spiritual center, and continued to be important for hundreds of years.

Inside what is believed to have been an open-air temple used as an observatory, the Gateway of the Sun has been found. Considered to be one of the best examples of Tiwanaku art, the Gateway of the Sun was made from a slab of stone, believed to weigh about ten tons, designed to look like a doorway; over the top of the door is a a carved bas-relief of the Staff God, which was the most important deity in Andean culture.

The artifact was originally discovered toppled over and broken.

Historians still debate the reason for the demise of Tiwanaku around 1000 AD; some say they believe it was caused by an earthquake or invasion, while others theorize that there was an extended drought.
8. Peru--Norte Chico Civilization--Most ancient city of Americas

Answer: Caral

Caral was believed to be a bustling city covering more than 150 acres sometime between 2600-2000 BC - at about the same time the pyramids were being constructed on the Giza Plateau in ancient Egypt. Believed by some historians to be the oldest urban center in the Americas, Caral had a population of approximately 3000 people.

The remains of the city were discovered in 1948, however, it was not until the 1970s that the site was studied in any detail. Many sites belonging to the Norte Chico civilization have been discovered in the area, which is known for its architecture and textile production.

It is not known why the city was abandoned, however, the early abandonment of the city aided in its conservation over time. Due to the lack of gold artifacts and its remote location the city was not continuously looted as was the case of other ancients discoveries.
9. Argentina--Cave of the Hands--Hunting Scenes

Answer: Cueva de las Manos

Located near the town of Perito Moreno in Argentina, the art in the Caves of the Hands has been dated to 9,000-13,000 years ago using the remains of bone pipes that were used to spray the paint to make the hand stencils. In addition to the hand stencils, there are also images of humans, animals, geometric shapes, and hunting scenes.

Other caves nearby also contain artwork, but it is believed that the site was inhabited last about 700 AD. While the climate in the area has kept humidity in the caves low and the rocks are relatively stable, humans in recent years have caused much damage by touching the paintings, removing rocks, and leaving behind graffiti.
10. Peru--Capital of Chimur Kingdom--Artisans

Answer: Chan Chan

Located in the Moche River Valley, Chan Chan was the capital of the Chimú culture from approximately 700-1470 AD. In spite of the fact that a river was present, the area around Chan Chan was rather arid and dry, hence the meaning of the name - "Sun Sun". With very little rain, the area depended on run-off water from the Andes Mountains, which was used for irrigation.

It is estimated that the urban area of the capital covered approximately eight square miles and had a population of 40,000-60,000 people. Imported raw materials were brought into the city and made into goods by 12,000 artisans who lived there.

After being incorporated into the Incan Empire, the city of Chan Chan fell into decline, but the real damage was done by Spanish conquistadors, who periodically looted the once wealthy city, as well as the tombs there. Chan Chan is considered to be the second largest adobe city in the world and is severely threatened by erosion caused by heaving rains, flooding, and strong winds.
Source: Author ponycargirl

This quiz was reviewed by FunTrivia editor gtho4 before going online.
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