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1. Let's start with Shanghai, the largest city and largest port in the world by some measures. Its location on the Yangtze river delta in an ice-free location means it is well-placed to serve China and the world. However since 1920 it has sunk around two metres. Which relatively recent issue is a significant contributor to the ongoing problem?
2. Let's look at Port Royal situated on a sand tombolo at the mouth of Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. This used to be de facto capital of Jamaica and a wealthy pirate city supporting privateers sponsored by the British and Dutch governments to harass Spanish bullion ships in the 17th century. How did this den of iniquity end up mostly sinking underwater?
3. Lake Peigneur in Louisiana was a 500-hectare shallow freshwater lake sitting above a salt mine and connected ultimately to the Gulf of Mexico by a 19-kilometre canal. Which of the following caused Lake Peigneur to turn into a salt water lake over the course of two days in 1980?
4. Guatemala City has seen a number of strange occurrences in recent years, partly due to a failure in municipal services. One in 2007 saw five people die when an intersection suddenly disappeared into a 100-metre deep hole. Another hole suddenly appeared in 2010, taking 15 people and a three-storey factory with it. What is the term for such a hole?
5. Based on the island of Strand, Rungholt was a wealthy port in the Danish duchy of Schleswig that disappeared under the North Sea on 16 January 1362 along with various other towns and villages, including Ravenser Odd in England. What caused this?
6. The impressive Gedungsen (or Storforsen) was a 35-metre high set of wild-water rapids at the end of a 35 km-long lake, Ragundasjön, in central Sweden. It was decided to bypass the falls with a canal to provide a navigable channel. With the canal nearing completion in 1796, the lake broke through into the canal and emptied itself in four hours, in the process wiping out sawmills, woods and such like downstream with a 15-metre high wall of water. Fortunately it seems nobody was killed. Which industry wanted the canal?
7. Go to Bangladesh if you want to see climate change in action. Islands lying off the coast have been disappearing rapidly under water in the last few years. Fingers point to more severe cyclones, higher tides and higher water temperatures as all contributing. What other climate-related change is implicated?
8. Oak Island in Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia. This modest 57-hectare island has attracted the attention of treasure hunters for over 200 years, all to no avail. What is the appropriately-named hole in ground which is the focus of their attention?
9. The area of the Netherlands known as Saeftinghe was reclaimed from the sea in 13th century and provided much wealth to the area. All Saint's flood in 1570 took back most of the land, destroying the towns of Sint-Laureins, Namen and Casuwele as well as their inhabitants. The town of Saeftinghe survived only to perish in 1584. What caused the demise of the town?
10. The port of New Orleans grew up 170 kilometres from the mouth of the Mississippi River, initially on high ground between the river and Lake Pontchartrain, an estuary leading to the Gulf of Mexico. Much of the city is now several metres below sea level, surrounded by levées. What caused the city to sink?
Source: Author suomy
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