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Quiz about Historic Realms The Crown of Castile
Quiz about Historic Realms The Crown of Castile

Historic Realms: The Crown of Castile Quiz


A little rusty on your history? Come learn a little about the world's historic realms in this photo quiz series. Here we will talk about the Crown of Castile. (If you would like to have a better view of the images/maps, please click on them to enlarge!)

A photo quiz by trident. Estimated time: 6 mins.
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Author
trident
Time
6 mins
Type
Photo Quiz
Quiz #
369,844
Updated
Dec 03 21
# Qns
10
Difficulty
Average
Avg Score
7 / 10
Plays
563
Awards
Top 10% Quiz
Last 3 plays: abetnarvaez (7/10), Shiary (7/10), PurpleComet (10/10).
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Question 1 of 10
1. The Crown of Castile was born of the personal union between the Kingdom of Castile and another neighboring kingdom under Ferdinand III. In the flag pictured here, we have an image of a castle (intuitively) representing the Castilian half of the personal union and a lion (intuitively) representing what other half? Hint


Question 2 of 10
2. Here we have a map of the extent of Castile's realm on the Iberian peninsula. On the left flank is Portugal and on the right is Aragon, which necessitated that Castile maintain a strong army. In the bottom left-hand corner, you can also see what group of islands, which are located to the west of Africa and which Castile invaded in 1402? Hint


Question 3 of 10
3. In 1385, Castile had grown quickly in power and influence and it set its ambitions upon its neighbors. It attempted to meddle in the royal line of one neighbor, leading to the Battle of Aljubarrota, which is depicted in the illustration here. What kingdom gave them a decisive and humbling defeat? Hint


Question 4 of 10
4. This painting by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz shows the surrender of Muhammad XII of Granada to the forces of Castile in 1492. The Crown of Castile had successfully achieved their goal of pushing all Muslim rule out of the Iberian Peninsula, a goal which took over 700 years. What was this effort called? Hint


Question 5 of 10
5. Speaking of 1492, this engraving depicts the arrival of an explorer to the New World. You can see the "castles and lions" coat of arms that belongs to Castile on the flag the explorer is holding. Which explorer is it? Hint


Question 6 of 10
6. Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile might be the most famous monarchs to rule the Crown of Castile, and they can trace their familial lines to the man in this image, Enrique II of Castile (also known as Henry II). After defeating his half-brother in 1369, he established which long-ruling house? Hint


Question 7 of 10
7. Romance-affiliated languages became more popular as early as the fourteenth century, and Castilian Spanish began to dominate. Works such as "Cantar de Mio Cid" (which features El Cid) and the adventure tale pictured here "Libro del caballero Zifar" (Book of the Knight Zifar) abandoned what traditional language long-used across Castile and Europe for the vernacular? Hint


Question 8 of 10
8. The image shown here is the Cantino planisphere, which shows the summation of Portugal's knowledge of the New World in 1502. On the left, there is a thick vertical line known as a demarcation line, guaranteed by treaty. Portugal was allowed to colonize everything to the right of this line and Castile was allowed to colonize everything to the left. It might seem unfair now, but as can be seen in the image, Portugal didn't know how big South America really was. What was the name of the famous treaty that led to this demarcation line? Hint


Question 9 of 10
9. This painting by Juan de Flandes shows the daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Though her reign lasted from 1504-1555, she was Queen of Castile in name only. Her Habsburg-related husband, Phillip the Handsome, ruled Castile "jure uxoris" (by right of his wife) until his sudden death in 1506. Her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, soon after became regent when the country began to fall apart, sending her to a convent. After Ferdinand's death, her son Charles I ruled as regent in a similar manner, confining her and keeping her from making important decisions. Who was this forgotten queen? Hint


Question 10 of 10
10. Charles I (who was also Charles V of the Holy Roman Emperor) had gained control over the Spanish (Castilian) throne, though his mother was still technically queen. Many Castilian loyalists were upset that the Habsburg bloodline had infiltrated into their royal lines and they attempted to bring power back to Charles' mother. This painting by Antonio Gisbert depicts the result of their efforts: execution. What was the name of these dissenters who wanted the Habsburgs out of their country? Hint



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Most Recent Scores
Jul 12 2024 : abetnarvaez: 7/10
Jun 14 2024 : Shiary: 7/10
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Quiz Answer Key and Fun Facts
1. The Crown of Castile was born of the personal union between the Kingdom of Castile and another neighboring kingdom under Ferdinand III. In the flag pictured here, we have an image of a castle (intuitively) representing the Castilian half of the personal union and a lion (intuitively) representing what other half?

Answer: León

Castile is represented by the castles and León by the (no surprise!) lions. The kingdoms of Castile and León had been united in the past; however, kings such as Alfonso VII often participated in the royal tradition of splitting up their kingdom amongst their children upon their death. Thus Castile and León were ruled separately and in open competition with one another.

In 1230, King Ferdinand III once again united the two kingdoms, though this time he was successful in keeping the union permanent. The Crown of Castile would become one of the largest empires in the world.
2. Here we have a map of the extent of Castile's realm on the Iberian peninsula. On the left flank is Portugal and on the right is Aragon, which necessitated that Castile maintain a strong army. In the bottom left-hand corner, you can also see what group of islands, which are located to the west of Africa and which Castile invaded in 1402?

Answer: Canary Islands

The conquest of the Canaries by Castile began in 1402 and is known as the "Conquista Betancuriana". The natives proved quite hostile and didn't accept conquest for over a hundred years. Only three islands were taken in the original campaign, and then later Castile took control of Gran Canaria and Tenerife in 1450.

The Canary Islands are now an autonomous community under the domain of Spain.
3. In 1385, Castile had grown quickly in power and influence and it set its ambitions upon its neighbors. It attempted to meddle in the royal line of one neighbor, leading to the Battle of Aljubarrota, which is depicted in the illustration here. What kingdom gave them a decisive and humbling defeat?

Answer: Portugal

One can see the coat of arms of Portugal (with its blue cross) on the gear the horse is wearing in the illustration. Opposite, you can see the castles and lions of Castile. The image was created by Jean de Wavrin, who was a Burgundian soldier and chronicler.

The result of the Battle of Aljubarrota was a clear defeat for Castile, even though they had a superior number of troops. England (a longtime Portuguese ally) helped Portugal secure the future of their throne by sending a group of their famous longbowmen. The House of Avis was established, and Castile's ambition to take Portugal through manipulation was quashed indefinitely.

The image is an illustration of the Battle of Aljubarrota by Jean de Wavrin.
4. This painting by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz shows the surrender of Muhammad XII of Granada to the forces of Castile in 1492. The Crown of Castile had successfully achieved their goal of pushing all Muslim rule out of the Iberian Peninsula, a goal which took over 700 years. What was this effort called?

Answer: The Reconquista

Muslims first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711, pushing Christians further north and conquering much of the peninsula. About a decade later, Christian forces began to push back, but it wasn't until hundreds of years later that they made much progress.

In 1492, the forces of King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I ended the last remaining Muslim rule in Granada. Muhammad XII only ruled over the city of Granada and other small holdings and didn't have the forces to hold off the Christian soldiers. He surrendered after attempting to find allies in the Mamluks and some North African kingdoms, but the Mamluks were too busy fighting the Ottomans and the North African kingdoms enjoyed their prosperous trade with Castile too much to interfere. The Reconquista was complete.

The painting is "The Capitulation of Granada" by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz.
5. Speaking of 1492, this engraving depicts the arrival of an explorer to the New World. You can see the "castles and lions" coat of arms that belongs to Castile on the flag the explorer is holding. Which explorer is it?

Answer: Cristoforo Colombo

Born in Genoa, Christopher Columbus ("Cristoforo Colombo" in Italian) was under the commission of The Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, so he would have been given the Castilian flag to fly in the New World. Columbus had attempted to secure funding for his expedition from multiple nations: Portugal, Venice, Genoa, and even England. Even the Castilians were hesitant and it took over two years to convince Ferdinand and Isabella to accept.

Per his terms, Columbus was to be given the title "Admiral of the Ocean" and made governor of the lands he found. The terms of the agreement were overly generous to Colombus' benefit, but the monarchs didn't really believe Columbus would return, so it was a gamble of an investment on the part of the Castilian rulers.

The image is an engraving by H.B. Hall.
6. Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile might be the most famous monarchs to rule the Crown of Castile, and they can trace their familial lines to the man in this image, Enrique II of Castile (also known as Henry II). After defeating his half-brother in 1369, he established which long-ruling house?

Answer: House of Trastámara

The House of Trastámara at different points had domain over Castile, Aragon, Navarra, and even Naples on the Italian Peninsula. They had a grip on the kingdoms in Spain for hundreds of years, ending in the sixteenth century when the Habsburgs began their rule.

The history of the house is a bit convoluted, with many siblings, half-siblings, and cousins fighting for their right to rule. One reason for this convolution has been attributed to the large number of marriages kept within the family line.

Even Isabella I of Castile had to oust her brother from power before she could rule the throne.

The image is from an altar painting by Jaume Serra.
7. Romance-affiliated languages became more popular as early as the fourteenth century, and Castilian Spanish began to dominate. Works such as "Cantar de Mio Cid" (which features El Cid) and the adventure tale pictured here "Libro del caballero Zifar" (Book of the Knight Zifar) abandoned what traditional language long-used across Castile and Europe for the vernacular?

Answer: Latin

Latin had dominated across much of Europe due to the Roman Empire spreading it and the Catholic Church continuing to use it officially. However, Spanish dialects had begun to replace the traditional Latin, even in writing. Castilian became the most widely-spoken dialect as Castile had a great deal of influence in the area and had begun to use it semi-officially.

"Castilian" is now nearly synonymous with "Spanish", though it mostly denotes the dialects spoken in Europe. Latin American Spanish often deviates, though the languages are still very close.
8. The image shown here is the Cantino planisphere, which shows the summation of Portugal's knowledge of the New World in 1502. On the left, there is a thick vertical line known as a demarcation line, guaranteed by treaty. Portugal was allowed to colonize everything to the right of this line and Castile was allowed to colonize everything to the left. It might seem unfair now, but as can be seen in the image, Portugal didn't know how big South America really was. What was the name of the famous treaty that led to this demarcation line?

Answer: Treaty of Tordesillas

In an earlier treaty, Portugal and Castile had agreed to other colonial demarcation lines concerning Africa and the East Indies. Once Christopher Columbus discovered new lands, Portugal was set to reap major gains due to the old treaty. Of course, Castile did not believe the old treaty applied to the new lands, so they convinced the Spanish-born pope to make a decree known as the "Inter caetera" that basically voided the earlier agreement and gave Spain special status in the New World in terms of colonization.

However, Castile was stretched pretty thin militarily and knew they could not afford a protracted war with Portugal. The Treaty of Tordesillas provided a diplomatic solution. The line was drawn, and once Castile discovered the extent of South America, they quickly colonized the western, southern, and northern ends of the continent, also making their way up through Central America and Mexico.
9. This painting by Juan de Flandes shows the daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Though her reign lasted from 1504-1555, she was Queen of Castile in name only. Her Habsburg-related husband, Phillip the Handsome, ruled Castile "jure uxoris" (by right of his wife) until his sudden death in 1506. Her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, soon after became regent when the country began to fall apart, sending her to a convent. After Ferdinand's death, her son Charles I ruled as regent in a similar manner, confining her and keeping her from making important decisions. Who was this forgotten queen?

Answer: Joanna the Mad

Historians believe that Joanna perhaps suffered from severe clinical depression, or even from schizophrenia. Though she was highly educated, even her mother Isabella I did not believe she would make a proper ruler, allowing Ferdinand II to rule as regent. Eventually, the Aragonese king would assume that role.

Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII's first wife, was Joanna's sister. Joanna and Phillip even met with Henry VIII in Phillip's attempt to relieve Ferdinand II of all power over Castile.

The painting is a portrait of Joanna the Mad by Juan de Flandes.
10. Charles I (who was also Charles V of the Holy Roman Emperor) had gained control over the Spanish (Castilian) throne, though his mother was still technically queen. Many Castilian loyalists were upset that the Habsburg bloodline had infiltrated into their royal lines and they attempted to bring power back to Charles' mother. This painting by Antonio Gisbert depicts the result of their efforts: execution. What was the name of these dissenters who wanted the Habsburgs out of their country?

Answer: Comuneros

The Trastámaras and Habsburgs were trying to keep France's influence from growing too large, so they established royal marriages to make their alliances closer. Castilian loyalists were angered by the intrusion of foreigners into the long-ruling Trastámara house.

Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, put down the rebellions in Castile with relative ease, but the revolt is seen as a pivotal event in Spanish history. The Comuneros attempted to get Joanna of Castile (Joanna the Mad) to declare herself the primary ruler of Castile and Aragon, but her son's advisers eventually convinced her that doing so would divide the country and ultimately be bad for Castile. Joanna relented and listened to her son.

The retribution was swift. The Comuneros were quickly put to death, and the thrones of Castile and Aragon permanently merged into Habsburg Spain. The Kingdom of Spain would become a worldwide empire that ruled for centuries.

The painting is "Execution of the Comuneros of Castile" by Antonio Gisbert.
Source: Author trident

This quiz was reviewed by FunTrivia editor bloomsby before going online.
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