Quiz about You Sank My Island
Quiz about You Sank My Island

You Sank My Island! Trivia Quiz


Nowhere are the dramatic effects of climate change as evident as in small island nations, in particular those located in the Pacific Ocean. This quiz will examine some of the life-altering consequences of climate change for these communities.

A multiple-choice quiz by Team Phoenix Rising. Estimated time: 4 mins.
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Author
LadyNym
Time
4 mins
Type
Multiple Choice
Quiz #
409,274
Updated
May 30 22
# Qns
10
Difficulty
Average
Avg Score
7 / 10
Plays
193
Awards
Top 5% quiz!
Last 3 plays: fun61 (0/10), Guest 98 (8/10), Guest 119 (4/10).
This quiz has 2 formats: you can play it as a or as shown below.
Scroll down to the bottom for the answer key.
1. Which of these is NOT one of the factors that makes many island nations particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change?
Hint

they have small landmasses
they are densely populated
they are more exposed to extreme weather
they are frequently low-lying

2. One of the many serious environmental issues plaguing small island nations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, what is coral bleaching? Hint

Warmer water slows enzymic pigment-producing reactions within the coral matrix
Heat from the sun bleaches the colour out of coral near the water surface
In warmer water, corals will expel the algae living in their tissues, causing the coral to turn white
Warmer water bleaches the colour out of the coral over all ocean depths

3. Is coral bleaching due solely to increased temperatures?

Yes
No

4. By their very nature, small islands are exposed to both slow-onset and rapid-onset coastal hazards. Which of the following would be considered a slow-onset coastal hazard?
Hint

storm surge
tsunami
erosion
cyclone

5. What issue, particularly relevant to the delicate ecosystems of the Pacific islands, is exacerbated by climate change?

the abnormal increase of local flora and fauna
the uncontrolled spread of invasive species

6. Flooding due to extreme weather events has a detrimental effect on the economy of small island nations, especially on agriculture, because of what process that negatively affects the quality of the soil?

Hint

desertification
salinization
deforestation
eutrophication

7. Some of the manifestations of climate change on the Pacific Islands are more frequent king tides and increased intensity of tropical cyclones. Apart from structural damage, what is the biggest threat to Pacific Island nations from these weather events?

reduction in water supply
lack of supplies from inbound boats and ships

8. Tuvalu, a tiny Pacific Island nation, is very susceptible to climate change. What is the highest point on Tuvalu? Hint

450 m (1,476 ft)
0.45 m (1.4 ft)
4.5 m (14.7 ft)
45 m (147 ft)

9. Which of these Pacific Island nations, situated in all four cardinal hemispheres, is one of the world's most vulnerable to changes in sea levels?

Hint

Tonga
Vanuatu
Samoa
Kiribati

10. The Alliance of Small Island States is an association of 14 Pacific Island nations, whose single charter relates to fighting climate change. True or false?

True
False




Quiz Answer Key and Fun Facts
1. Which of these is NOT one of the factors that makes many island nations particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change?

Answer: they are densely populated

For all their reputation as "tropical paradises", most small island nations, especially those in the Pacific, are rather sparsely populated - which is both a blessing and a curse. While a smaller population may mean fewer mouths to feed, it also means fewer resources in situations such as the fight against the detrimental effects of climate change. Most of these nations consist of islands with small landmasses, which makes them particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones, and storm surges. Coral islands and atolls also tend to have very low elevations, thus lacking any natural barriers against the violence of the elements, or higher ground that may provide shelter to the population in case of disaster.

This crucial question was penned by LadyNym with special urgency.
2. One of the many serious environmental issues plaguing small island nations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, what is coral bleaching?

Answer: In warmer water, corals will expel the algae living in their tissues, causing the coral to turn white

In healthy coral, algae and coral are co-dependent and share a symbiotic relationship. The algae, called zooxanthellae, live within the tissues and are the primary food source for the coral. These algae give the coral their colour. When stressed, algae - which are sessile - leave the coral, but this is reversible. Bleached coral is vulnerable. Without a major source of food, coral turns white and is far more susceptible to disease. It is now at risk.

Some Pacific Island nations' landmasses are comprised entirely of coral atolls. These include Kiribati, Tuvalu, and Tokelau. Despite being built on such a fragile base, there were no concerns about structural integrity until climate change became an issue, especially in the Pacific.

Question contributed by Phoenix Rising's 1nn1.
3. Is coral bleaching due solely to increased temperatures?

Answer: No

Increased ocean temperature caused by climate change is the leading, but not only, cause of coral bleaching. In 2010, cold water temperatures in the Florida Keys caused a coral bleaching event so cold that it resulted in some coral death. Water temperatures dropped 6.7 C (44 F) lower than the typical temperatures observed. The algae within the coral tissues tolerate only a very narrow bandwidth of temperatures. Runoff from storm-generated precipitation can quickly dilute ocean water. Runoff also carries pollutants which can also bleach coral close to the shores. When temperatures are high, high solar radiation contributes to bleaching in shallow-water corals. Exposure to the air during very low tides can cause bleaching in shallow corals.

Coral bleaching has an effect on the economies of some Pacific Island nations. For example 40% of Fiji's GDP is international tourism, and in 2017 this country announced it would grow its tourism revenue from $1 billion to $2 billion over the next ten years. A significant amount of that tourism revenue is spent due to two of the world's longest reefs - the Great Sea Reef and the Great Astrolabe Reef - both located in Fiji. The diving industry is centred around these two reefs.

Question contributed by Phoenix Rising's 1nn1.
4. By their very nature, small islands are exposed to both slow-onset and rapid-onset coastal hazards. Which of the following would be considered a slow-onset coastal hazard?

Answer: erosion

While coastal erosion is frequently caused by rapid-onset phenomena such as cyclones, tsunamis and storm surges, which may occur with minimal or no warning, it is generally a slow, long-term process that can be kept under control by various methods - which, however, require planning and resources. The rising sea levels that are threatening the very existence of many island nations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans are a major cause of coastal erosion, affecting the livelihood of these nations through the damage done to their beaches, as well as the fishing industry. Additionally, as most Pacific islands are low-lying (as pointed out in Q.1), they are bound to suffer more from the effects of coastal erosion, as sandy beaches erode at a quicker rate.

A factor that exacerbates coastal degradation in the Pacific is the weakening of the natural barrier provided by coral reefs against the intensity of storm surges (see Q. 3). This can be seen, for instance, in parts of the Republic of Palau, especially in the northern part of the island of Babeldaob, where in the past few decades coastal erosion has caused the loss of large parts of the coastline.

LadyNym patiently wore away at this question until it looked just right.
5. What issue, particularly relevant to the delicate ecosystems of the Pacific islands, is exacerbated by climate change?

Answer: the uncontrolled spread of invasive species

Although most of the world's countries have to deal with the environmental and economic impact of invasive species, for small island nations this issue is even more pressing. The increase in temperatures, accompanied by both heavier rainfall and longer periods of drought, offers many opportunities to invasive plants and animals to spread and establish themselves in a new environment. This endangers native species, and frequently affects the livelihood of local communities through damage to cultivations and fisheries.

In addition, the unique characteristics of island ecosystems can be irremediably altered by the introduction of these species, which often prey on native fauna, or compete with them for food. Mammals such as feral cats, pigs, and rats have caused immense damage to the fauna of many Pacific islands, including larger landmasses such as Australia and New Zealand.

LadyNym tried her best to frame this question in a non-invasive manner.
6. Flooding due to extreme weather events has a detrimental effect on the economy of small island nations, especially on agriculture, because of what process that negatively affects the quality of the soil?

Answer: salinization

As most small island nations have limited arable land at their disposal, preserving it from degradation is of vital importance for their livelihood. However, the increasing frequency of flooding by saltwater as a consequence of rising sea levels and extreme weather leads to salinization (also called salinification) of the soil. The high levels of salt accumulating in the soil after the flood waters subside make it increasingly difficult to produce the crops on which many of these island nations rely for domestic consumption and as export goods. In recent years, the Marshall Islands, located a few degrees north of the Equator in the Pacific Ocean, have been badly affected by large storms and very high tides, called "king tides", with soil salinization impacting crops such as coconut and breadfruit.

While desertification, like salinization, is a type of land degradation, deforestation is a form of land clearance that often leads to degradation, Eutrophication, on the other hand, refers to an excessive concentration of nutrients in bodies of water.

In spite of its topic, this question by LadyNym does not need to be taken with a grain of salt.
7. Some of the manifestations of climate change on the Pacific Islands are more frequent king tides and increased intensity of tropical cyclones. Apart from structural damage, what is the biggest threat to Pacific Island nations from these weather events?

Answer: reduction in water supply

Climate change has had a negative impact on the water supply on the tiny landmasses of the Pacific Island nations. As most Pacific Islands are very low-lying, king tides and high waves from tropical cyclones can overrun dry land (see Q. 6). Contamination of water supply is the biggest risk to local infrastructure.

Several island nations, such as the Solomon Islands, Fiji and Tonga, have taken major action to ensure there will be an adequate safe drinking water supply in their respective futures. The Solomon Islands have been given a low interest loan and grant from the World Bank to rehabilitate 10km (6.2 mi) of water supply pipes, which should increase supply by 30%. The grant will also provide two new reservoirs and a new water treatment plant. Fiji has spent $405 million on a new water intake plant on the Rewa River, as well as a project to upgrade 31 existing pumping stations. As the Tongan capital Nuku'alofa is prone to flash flooding from heavy rain events and storm surges, the country has received a grant from the Asian Development Bank to develop and implement their flood management, water and sanitation infrastructure plan.

These are just three of the Pacific Islands' responses to secure water infrastructure in a climate change environment. Nearly all Pacific Island nations have either planned or implemented water security measures as a result of climate change.

This question was supplied by Phoenix Rising's JAM6430.
8. Tuvalu, a tiny Pacific Island nation, is very susceptible to climate change. What is the highest point on Tuvalu?

Answer: 4.5 m (14.7 ft)

Situated halfway between Hawaii and Australia and north of Fiji, Tuvalu is typical of Pacific Island nations that are all susceptible to climate change. Tuvalu comprises three reef islands and six atolls covering a mere 26 km (10.03 sq mi), but spread out between the latitude of 5 and 10 south, and between the longitudes of 176 and 180. The highest point of 4.5 m (14.7 ft) shows how susceptible this nation is to rising sea levels. Funafuti, the main administrative centre, has sea level rises calculated at 1.2+/- 0.8mm (0.047+/-0.03 in) per year. The tiny nation is also at risk of peak tides that appear to be getting higher. In its struggle against this urgent issue, Tuvalu is considering resettlement in Australia and New Zealand for its 10,000 residents, if rising sea levels cannot be stopped.

This question was contributed by Phoenix Rising's 1nn1.
9. Which of these Pacific Island nations, situated in all four cardinal hemispheres, is one of the world's most vulnerable to changes in sea levels?

Answer: Kiribati

A republic consisting of three groups of islands - 32 atolls plus one raised coral island (Banaba) - Kiribati is one of the lowest-lying of the small Pacific island nations, with an average elevation of less than 2 m (6.5 t) above sea level. Some experts have predicted that by 2050 most of the islands will be flooded, or made almost uninhabitable by soil salinization (see Q. 6), so that Kiribati's population of over 100,000 will be forced to migrate elsewhere - which some of the nation's inhabitants have already done. In 2012, the government of Kiribati bought a large parcel of land on Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji, to provide a place for the Kiribati population (especially the younger generations) to relocate to in the event the worst came to pass.

A gradual rise in sea levels can encourage the activity of coral polyps, which can contribute to lifting the atolls above sea level, thus providing a measure of protection against the elements. This process, however, needs to happen faster than sea level rise, and is dependent on corals not being damaged or weakened by ocean acidification or bleaching (see Q. 3).

Kiribati is one of the poorest and least developed nations in the world. A large proportion of its population depends on the islands' main resource - copra (dried coconut flesh) - for their livelihood, but coconut palms have also been impacted by climate change. While the people are willing to fight for their country's survival, resources are limited, and theirs seems to be an uphill struggle.

LadyNym wrote this question while trying to keep her head above water.
10. The Alliance of Small Island States is an association of 14 Pacific Island nations, whose single charter relates to fighting climate change. True or false?

Answer: False

The Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) is an intergovernmental organisation which sits under the governance of the United Nations. The organisation had its origins at the Second World Climate Conference in Geneva in 1990. There are 39 members: 15 from the Pacific Islands, 16 from the Caribbean, 4 from the Indian Ocean, and 3 from the Atlantic. AOSIS exists to implement advocacy for small island nations and to influence and inform global environmental policy. AOSIS' core focus areas are climate change, sustainable development, and ocean conservation - but the most important of these is climate change and its negative socioeconomic and environmental effects on small island nations.

This alliance is very closely associated with climate policy, and has strong and integral links with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In 2017, It was not a coincidence that two of the three members of the executive of this committee were United Nations Ambassadors from Pacific Island nations. It seems ironic that the nations contributing to climate change the least are affected the most, and leading the charge over much larger nations in the attempt to slow the effects of global climate change.

This question was written for the quiz by 1nn1 of Phoenix Rising.
Source: Author LadyNym

This quiz was reviewed by FunTrivia editor rossian before going online.
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