Quiz Answer Key and Fun Facts
1. Social psychologists have conducted research into wrongful convictions. What did they identify as the biggest factor, accounting for 45% of these convictions?
2. In 1896, Albert Von Schrenk-Notzing, a psychologist, appeared as an 'expert witness' in a criminal trial. What did he testify about?
3. In one of the most famous experiments on the validity of eyewitness testimony, Loftus & Palmer, using video of a car accident, showed that something very simple can affect the recall of the event. What was it?
4. In 1977 Clifford & Richards conducted a simple experiment to test if a specific factor affected the recall of that event. What was this factor?
5. In 1979, Elizabeth Loftus conducted an experiment to test the effect of eyewitness testimony on juries. She had students read a summary of a court case and then return a 'verdict'. Loftus managed to change the 'conviction rate' from 72% to 18%. How did she do this?
6. In 1981, Malpass and Devine conducted a staged crime and followed it with a line-up. By changing one thing between two groups when the line-up occurred, false identification dropped from 78% to 33%. What did they change?
7. Information given after eyewitness identification has been made can affect recall.
8. When people are caught up in a crime, attention can tend to focus on details other than the perpetrator, details such as a gun or knife. What term has been coined to describe this phenomenon?
9. In 2004 an experiment showed that, in a certain situation, trained military personnel made incorrect identifications, from a photo line-up, 68% of the time. What type of situation caused this?
10. There is no way to offset the unreliability of eyewitness testimony.
Source: Author EmmaF2008
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