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Quiz about Cuban Wars of Independence
Quiz about Cuban Wars of Independence

Cuban Wars of Independence Trivia Quiz


Cubans fought bravely for almost half a century to liberate their country from Spanish colonialism and to achieve social justice as well as independence. The situation was further complicated when the US entered the later stages of this long struggle.

A multiple-choice quiz by St Sava Jr.. Estimated time: 6 mins.
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Author
St Sava Jr.
Time
6 mins
Type
Multiple Choice
Quiz #
152,929
Updated
Dec 03 21
# Qns
20
Difficulty
Tough
Avg Score
11 / 20
Plays
938
Awards
Top 35% Quiz
- -
Question 1 of 20
1. How many wars did Cubans fight to gain independence from Spain? Hint


Question 2 of 20
2. When did the first major uprising against Spanish rule occur? Hint


Question 3 of 20
3. What was the insurrection called? Hint


Question 4 of 20
4. Who was the leader of the insurrection? Hint


Question 5 of 20
5. What was the goal of the revolutionaries? Hint


Question 6 of 20
6. How many years did the first Cuban insurrection last? Hint


Question 7 of 20
7. The fighting in the first Cuban insurrection ended with a compromise in the form of autonomy. Where was the peace agreement signed? Hint


Question 8 of 20
8. About how many lives were lost during the first Cuban insurrection? Hint


Question 9 of 20
9. A small war, La Guerra Chiquitta, was unsuccessfully fought 1879-80. It was initiated by whom? Hint


Question 10 of 20
10. Who was the mastermind of insurrection that would finally lead to Cuban independence from Spain? Hint


Question 11 of 20
11. What were Cuban guerrilla fighters called? Hint


Question 12 of 20
12. What famous Cuban general was called 'The Titan of Bronze'? Hint


Question 13 of 20
13. Where was the famous battle where the Cubans heavily defeated the Spaniards under Martinez Campos? Hint


Question 14 of 20
14. The Spanish general, Waleriano Weyler, was notorious for his brutal policy toward Cuban population aimed at cracking-down hard on the insurrection. What was this policy called? Hint


Question 15 of 20
15. The United States entered the war between Cubans and Spain following disaster of the USS Maine off Havana, killing 266 sailors. What reason for explosion of Maine was first mentioned by the Navy? Hint


Question 16 of 20
16. Where was the famous battle won by Roosevelt's Rough Riders that led to the capture of Santiago? Hint


Question 17 of 20
17. The US fleet under command of admiral William Sāmpson defeated the Spanish fleet trying to escape from bay of Santiago, effectively ending the war. The complete Spanish fleet was destroyed. Who was the commander of the Spanish fleet? Hint


Question 18 of 20
18. Who was the Commander-in-Chief of the Cuban Liberation Army? Hint


Question 19 of 20
19. How many combatants did the Cuban Liberation Army have? Hint


Question 20 of 20
20. When Cuba was declared independent on May 5th, 1902, its independence was limited by an imposed amendment giving US the right to supervise Cuban foreign affairs, trade agreements and the right to intervene in domestic affairs. What is this amendment called? Hint



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quiz
Quiz Answer Key and Fun Facts
1. How many wars did Cubans fight to gain independence from Spain?

Answer: Three

The Cuban sugar cane industry, one of the most mechanized industries of the world in the mid 19th century, wanted free access to world markets and to foreign labor and capital. The antiquated Spanish colonial system was too rigid to provide for this. Increasing taxation added to the burden. Slave labor was not needed any more due to the introduction of machinery. Spanish administration was also rigid, ineffective and corrupt. All these led to the formation of an independence movement which would proclaim three goals: abolition of slavery, independence and a republican form of government.
2. When did the first major uprising against Spanish rule occur?

Answer: October 10, 1868

The conspiracy was discovered by the Spanish authorities and they were already in hot pursuit of the conspirators. The leaders of the conspiracy therefore pushed ahead with revolt in hope that many others would follow soon.
3. What was the insurrection called?

Answer: Grito de Yara

The leader of the revolt, lawer and planter Cespedes, freed slaves from his estate, proclaimed the abolition of slavery and the motto 'independencia o muerte' ('independence or death'). He negotiated with the Spanish authorities to obtain the surrender of Yara, but was surprised by incoming Spanish troops. Only eleven rebels survived, but Cespedes shouted, 'Enough for the liberty of Cuba!' The 'Protesta de los Mangos de Baragua' was led by Antonio Maceo after the peace of Yanjon in 1878. Grito de Bayamo and Grito de Habana is just made up.
4. Who was the leader of the insurrection?

Answer: Carlos Manuel de Cespedes

Carlos Cespedes was a lawyer and a planter. Ignacio Agramonte would become the most famous rebel general during the war. Francisco Aguilera was also a general of rebel forces.
5. What was the goal of the revolutionaries?

Answer: All of these

Independence from conservative Spain was seen as the prerequisite for introducing political and social reforms, and full parliamentary democracy was sought in order to create a political instrument for reforms - from the abolition of slavery, the establishment of universal suffrage, the freedom of the press and of political activity to freedom for the movement of goods, capital and labor: in short, for the modernization of Cuban society.
6. How many years did the first Cuban insurrection last?

Answer: ten

It was a long and bloody war. The rebel Cuban Liberation Army (Ejercito Libertador) successfully employed guerilla tactics, roaming through vast rural areas, while Spaniards maintained control over major cities. The dynamic balance of power was a consequence, and the war lasted for a decade.
7. The fighting in the first Cuban insurrection ended with a compromise in the form of autonomy. Where was the peace agreement signed?

Answer: Zanjon

The peace of Zanjon was a compromise that essentially did not satisfy anybody. Spain obstructed autonomy given to Cuba in Zanjon, while the militant wing of the rebels did not accept partial solution, especially Antonio Maceo and Maximo Gomez, later leaders of the War of Liberation of 1895.
8. About how many lives were lost during the first Cuban insurrection?

Answer: 200,000

The war was very bloody, having in mind the overall size of Cuban population. Many also died from diseases, hunger and other war-related causes.
9. A small war, La Guerra Chiquitta, was unsuccessfully fought 1879-80. It was initiated by whom?

Answer: Antonio Maceo

Antonio Maceo was stubborn and devoted freedom fighter. However, the wider population did not accept another war because it was impoverished and exhausted after the Ten Years' War.
10. Who was the mastermind of insurrection that would finally lead to Cuban independence from Spain?

Answer: Jose Marti

Jose Marti, a lawyer, poet, writer, political worker, the father of Latin American nationalism, and the father of Cuban nation. His writings are published in 74 volumes in all. He founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party as an instrument to lead Cubans during struggle for independence. Died in battle near Dos Rios on May 19, 1895. Antonio Maceo and Maximo Gomez were famous military commanders. Estrada Palma was second president of Cuban Revolutionary Party, in New York.
11. What were Cuban guerrilla fighters called?

Answer: Mambi

The origin of the word 'mambi' is thought to be African, but this is unclear. It denoted black majority of Cuban Liberation Army. Mau-Mau was anti-colonialist movement in Kenya, and the Vietcong was the name of that in Vietnam. Marimba is an Afro-Cuban musical instrument similar to the African m'bira.
12. What famous Cuban general was called 'The Titan of Bronze'?

Answer: Antonio Maceo

Antonio Maceo joined Sespedes' movement as a mulatto of humble origin, but due to his courage and outstanding military capability for conducting guerilla warfare, soon became one of the most prominent of the mambi generals. Because of his bravery and great physical strength, he became known as the 'Titan of bronze'. Maceo was very determined fighter for Cuban liberty and also a fierce and principled anti-imperialist.

The other three figures were famous Cuban liberation army generals.
13. Where was the famous battle where the Cubans heavily defeated the Spaniards under Martinez Campos?

Answer: Peralejo

On 13th July, 1895, in the high grass of Peralejo, Cuban forces under Maceo's command heavily defeated Spanish army under General Martinez Campos. Only the lack of ammunition has spared Spaniards a total defeat and Campos being captured. This battle gave high esteem to Cuban fight for independence and demoralized the Spaniards.
14. The Spanish general, Waleriano Weyler, was notorious for his brutal policy toward Cuban population aimed at cracking-down hard on the insurrection. What was this policy called?

Answer: Reconcentration policy

For failure to contain the insurrection, Martinez Campos was soon replaced by the most capable but also cruel Spanish general, Waleriano Weiler. Being unable to defeat mambi army on the battlefield, he decided to strangle it by cutting its supplies. With this in mind he forcefully concentrated vast number of people into the protected areas in order to prevent people supporting and joining the Cuban Liberation Army.

However, Spaniards did not have adequate supplies of food, water and medicine for the 'concentrated' people, so soon starvation, hunger, disease killed many. Also, all who didn't obey his strict rules was executed.

The jingoistic American 'yellow press' readily used this policy to denunciate the Spaniards, and to bring US close to joining the war with Spain.
15. The United States entered the war between Cubans and Spain following disaster of the USS Maine off Havana, killing 266 sailors. What reason for explosion of Maine was first mentioned by the Navy?

Answer: Spontaneous combustion of coal

'The majority of naval officers believes that the explosion is the consequence of spontaneous fire in coal bunkers', which caused explosion of close by ammunition stores, stated AP on 17th February. 'I can not offer any explanation before inquiry is conducted', said on the same day Captain Sigby to AP. But the jingoistic press had its own conclusions: 'It is generally believed that Spaniards did it'.
16. Where was the famous battle won by Roosevelt's Rough Riders that led to the capture of Santiago?

Answer: San Juan Hill

On 1st July, Rough Riders under the command of Theodore Roosevelt, attacked and took control of Spanish stronghold defending Santiago, San Juan Hill. Cervera's fleet, caughed up this way in the deep bay of Santiago, had to flee the bay and to confront much stronger American fleet under William Sampson. Daiquiri and Siboney were the places of American disembarcment. El Caney was another Spanish stronghold, nearby Santiago.
17. The US fleet under command of admiral William Sāmpson defeated the Spanish fleet trying to escape from bay of Santiago, effectively ending the war. The complete Spanish fleet was destroyed. Who was the commander of the Spanish fleet?

Answer: Pascual Cervera y Topete

Pascual Cervera y Topete was able Spanish officer who realistically judged the unfavourable state of the Spanish fleet by comparison with the American fleet, however he bravely obeyed the orders from higher command to engage in the batlle. When he tried to escape from the bay where his fleet was trapped, sailing to obvious disaster. When Cervera saw that the ships would be destroyed by enemy fire, he deliberately sank the ships that were still afloat, by leading them to the shores.

Martinez Campos was able commander of Spanish forces in the first part of Cuban War of Independence. Gonzalo de Quesada was a high member of Cuban Revolutionary Party, serving as its diplomatic representative in Washington. J.C. Breckenridge was US deputy Minister of War and the author of infamous memorandum where he advocated cruel methods for conquering Cuba.
18. Who was the Commander-in-Chief of the Cuban Liberation Army?

Answer: Maximo Gomez

Maximo Gomez was the very capable commander-in-chief of the Cuban rebel Mambi Army. He deployed very effective and offensive guerrilla strategy which Spanish forces simply could not match. Calisto Garcia was one of the high-ranking Mambi generals. He commanded Cuban forces that together with Americans attacked Santiago. Jose Marti was a leader of the Cuban revolution, and a 'father of Cuban nation'. Estrada Palma was Marti's successor after his death in combat at Dos Rios, and first president of Cuban Republic.
19. How many combatants did the Cuban Liberation Army have?

Answer: 40,000

The Cuban Liberation Army was several times smaller than Spanish Army, which numbered more 200,000 troops. However, superior guerrilla strategy, higher combat morale, excellent command and the general support of the population, enabled it to be victorious.

The Spanish could control only the major cities and ports, while all the rest of the island was under permanent or periodic control of Cuban forces.
20. When Cuba was declared independent on May 5th, 1902, its independence was limited by an imposed amendment giving US the right to supervise Cuban foreign affairs, trade agreements and the right to intervene in domestic affairs. What is this amendment called?

Answer: Platt amendment

The amendment was imposed on Cuban Congress after attempts to annex Cuba failed, primarily because of opposition to it in the US. Cubans were confronted with the option that either they implement the amendment that severely restricted their independence, or their independence would not be acknowledged at all. The amendment also provided for the American Naval base at Guantanamo.

The Teller amendment of April 1898 stated that US had no intention to impose any restrictions or establish any jurisdiction over or control of Cuban sovereignty.

George Tenet is CIA Director.
Source: Author St Sava Jr.

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