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Quiz about Between the Wars The London Treaty of 1930
Quiz about Between the Wars The London Treaty of 1930

Between the Wars: The London Treaty of 1930 Quiz


The London Naval Treaty of 1930 attempted to solve some of the problems left by the Washington Treaty of 1922 - and perhaps created some new ones.

A multiple-choice quiz by ignotus999. Estimated time: 6 mins.
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Author
ignotus999
Time
6 mins
Type
Multiple Choice
Quiz #
362,003
Updated
Dec 03 21
# Qns
10
Difficulty
Tough
Avg Score
6 / 10
Plays
197
- -
Question 1 of 10
1. The London Naval Conference that produced the 1930 Treaty was preceded by an arms limitation conference that failed to reach agreement. What was that prior unsuccessful conference? Hint


Question 2 of 10
2. The Washington Treaty of 1922 did not regulate this type of warship. However, the London Treaty of 1930 prescribed both individual design limits and total tonnage limits. What type of vessel is this? Hint


Question 3 of 10
3. The Washington Treaty of 1922 created an unexpected competition in building cruisers armed with 8" guns. What was one way the London Treaty of 1930 addressed this problem? Hint


Question 4 of 10
4. Submarine warfare against merchant shipping was a continuing concern. How did the London Treaty of 1930 address it? Hint


Question 5 of 10
5. The definition of "aircraft carrier" in the Washington Treaty of 1922 stated in part: "a vessel of war with a displacement in excess of 10,000 tons designed for the specific and exclusive purpose of carrying aircraft. It must be so constructed that aircraft can be launched therefrom and landed thereon ..." The London Treaty of 1930 deleted one of these criteria. What loophole was plugged? Hint


Question 6 of 10
6. The London Treaty of 1930 provided that "No capital ship in existence on 1 April 1930 shall be fitted with a landing-on platform or deck". Did any of the five powers ever do so? Hint


Question 7 of 10
7. The London Treaty of 1930 required the signatory powers to reveal the basic characteristics of newly-built cruisers, but one feature was omitted from the required disclosures. What was it? Hint


Question 8 of 10
8. The Washington Treaty of 1922 did not limit the construction of destroyers; the London Treaty of 1930 did so. What key characteristic of destroyers was NOT limited by the London Treaty? Hint


Question 9 of 10
9. The Washington Treaty of 1922 allowed the five powers to build new (replacement) capital ships during the period 1931 through 1936. In the London Treaty of 1930, they agreed not to so do - except for Italy and France. Why the exception? Italy and France ... Hint


Question 10 of 10
10. The London Treaty of 1930 continued the 16" gun size limit imposed by the Washington Treaty of 1922. Did any of the five powers ever complete any capital ships with guns larger than 16" - even after the Treaty system ended? Hint



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Quiz Answer Key and Fun Facts
1. The London Naval Conference that produced the 1930 Treaty was preceded by an arms limitation conference that failed to reach agreement. What was that prior unsuccessful conference?

Answer: The Geneva Conference (1927)

The Washington Treaty of 1922 contemplated a further conference as the tenth anniversary of that Treaty approached. In 1927, U.S. President Calvin Collidge duly issued invitations to the four other signatory powers - Britain, Japan, France and Italy - to meet in Geneva. Britain and Japan accepted, but both France and Italy declined to attend.

The U.S. had two basic aims in Geneva: (1) limit the total tonnage of cruisers and smaller craft to 300,000 tons each for the U.S. and Britain and 180,000 tons for Japan and (2) avoid more severe restrictions on the size of individual warships.

The British delegation sought over 500,000 tons of cruisers and smaller ships, and a reduction in the maximum size of individual cruisers. Japan was also unwilling to limit its cruiser tonnage to only 60% of the total allowed to the U.S. and Britain.

The absence of France and Italy made little difference. The three largest naval powers could not even agree among themselves, and the Geneva Conference collapsed.

In 1930 - during the Depression - the same issues arose at the London Conference, but agreement was achieved.
2. The Washington Treaty of 1922 did not regulate this type of warship. However, the London Treaty of 1930 prescribed both individual design limits and total tonnage limits. What type of vessel is this?

Answer: Submarines

In 1921-1922, France refused to limit submarine construction because it sought a naval weapon to counter the Anglo-American superiority in capital ships. Thereafter, France launched a 2,800 ton submarine armed with 8" guns - but the "submarine cruiser" Surcouf was not successful. By 1930, a displacement of 2,000 tons and a maximum gun caliber of 5.1 inches were regarded as sufficient - but the parties were allowed to retain existing submarines that exceeded these limits.

The London Treaty gave Japan parity with the U.S. and Britain in the total tonnage of submarines, at 52,700 tons each.
3. The Washington Treaty of 1922 created an unexpected competition in building cruisers armed with 8" guns. What was one way the London Treaty of 1930 addressed this problem?

Answer: Lowering the maximum cruiser gun caliber to 6.1"

The infamous "Treaty Cruisers" of the 1920s were an unfortunate result of the Washington Treaty. The 1922 pact defined a "capital ship" as a vessel armed primarily with guns that was either over 10,000 displacement and/or carried a gun larger than 8". By negative implication, the signatories could build an umlimited number of ships below those thresholds - and they built dozens of heavily gunned and poorly armored cruisers. By 1930, the major powers realized that a balanced 8" cruiser design could not be achieved in a 10,000 ton ship.

The London Treaty allowed the existing "Treaty Cruisers" to remain, but reduced the maximum gun size for new cruisers to 6.1". This allowed for more balanced designs: ships carrying 6" guns and also (mostly) protected against 6" shellfire.

The London Treaty also imposed limits on the total tonnage of cruisers and smaller vessels.
4. Submarine warfare against merchant shipping was a continuing concern. How did the London Treaty of 1930 address it?

Answer: Protecting the crews of merchant ships

Article 22 of the London Treaty generally subjected submarines to "the rules of international law" governing surface ship attacks on merchant ships - but what were those rules? The United States had refused to agree to several prior treaties limiting commerce warfare, dating back to the mid-19th century. To clarify, Section 2 of Article 22 stated in part: "In particular, except in the case of persistent refusal to stop on being duly summoned, or of active resistance to visit or search, a warship, whether surface vessel or submarine, may not sink or render incapable of navigation a merchant vessel without having first placed passengers, crew and ship's papers in a place of safety." The signatory powers largely ignored these rules during World War II - as did Germany and the Soviet Union, which did not sign the Treaty.
5. The definition of "aircraft carrier" in the Washington Treaty of 1922 stated in part: "a vessel of war with a displacement in excess of 10,000 tons designed for the specific and exclusive purpose of carrying aircraft. It must be so constructed that aircraft can be launched therefrom and landed thereon ..." The London Treaty of 1930 deleted one of these criteria. What loophole was plugged?

Answer: "in excess of 10,000 tons "

The Washington Treaty allowed virtually unlimited construction of warships under 10,000 tons. In theory, the signatory powers could have built vast numbers of small carriers - though none were actually constructed. The London Treaty prevented this unused subterfuge.

The London Treaty did allow a cruiser or smaller vessel to have a flight deck provided the ship was "not designed or adapted exclusively as an aircraft carrier". The five powers didn't build any "flight deck cruisers" either - though they could have.
6. The London Treaty of 1930 provided that "No capital ship in existence on 1 April 1930 shall be fitted with a landing-on platform or deck". Did any of the five powers ever do so?

Answer: Yes - Japan, during World War Two

During the 1920s, there were speculative designs for "battleship-carriers" - which were allowed under the London Treaty as "capital ships" - but none were actually laid down.

The only true battleship-carriers were wartime expedients, long after the Treaty system collapsed. After losing its four largest aircraft carriers during the Battle of Midway in 1942, the Japanese Navy considered converting all of its capital ships (except the new Yamato and Musashi) into full flight-deck aircraft carriers. That plan was abandoned because of lack of resources. Instead, the ageing battleships Ise and Hyuga were converted into hybrid battleship-carriers, with flight decks replacing the after two main battery turrets. The hybrids were unsuccessful. The Japanese Navy also completed the Shinano, the third giant Yamato-class battleship, as an aircraft carrier, but she was not "in existence" in 1930.
7. The London Treaty of 1930 required the signatory powers to reveal the basic characteristics of newly-built cruisers, but one feature was omitted from the required disclosures. What was it?

Answer: Armor

The London Treaty limited cruisers to a maximum of 10,000 tons and 6.1" guns, so disclosing those characteristics should have confirmed the ship's compliance with the Treaty - if the information was accurate. Armor was not limited by the Treaty, but it was a key element in the displacement of cruisers.

The Italian and Japanese navies often exceeded the 10,000 ton displacement limit, but it was difficult or impossible to tell without knowing how much armor their cruisers carried. Japan also evaded the Treaty's limit on cruiser gun size (without breaking it) by arming new cruisers with 6" guns but designing them for quick conversion to carry 8" guns.

After withdrawing from the Treaty system, several Japanese cruisers were re-fitted with twin 8" turrets in place of their triple 6" turrets.
8. The Washington Treaty of 1922 did not limit the construction of destroyers; the London Treaty of 1930 did so. What key characteristic of destroyers was NOT limited by the London Treaty?

Answer: Torpedoes

The London Treaty did not limit the size, range or number of torpedoes or torpedo tubes carried by destroyers. This was strange because the torpedo was by far the destroyer's most powerful offensive armament. Beginning in 1928, Japan developed the 610 mm "Type 93" torpedo for surface ships. (After World War Two, American historian Samuel Eliot Morison dubbed it the "Long Lance"; the Japanese Navy didn't use that nickname.) Its secret was the use of compressed oxygen in the combustion process instead of compressed air.

The Type 93 had a maximum speed of 52 knots and a maximum range of over 40,000 yards. It could be fired against targets from beyond the visual horizon (usually 24,000 yds. on a clear day). The U.S. and Britain gave far less attention to the development of torpedoes during the 1920s and 1930s.

The American stardard surface-launched torpedo of World War Two had a range of about 12,000 yards and a much lower top speed.
9. The Washington Treaty of 1922 allowed the five powers to build new (replacement) capital ships during the period 1931 through 1936. In the London Treaty of 1930, they agreed not to so do - except for Italy and France. Why the exception? Italy and France ...

Answer: Still had not built their quota from the 1920s

Government finances played an important role in bringing the powers to the conference table in 1922, and again during the Great Depression in 1930. Under the Washington Treaty, Italy and France were permitted to build one new capital ship each in 1927 and 1929. Neither could afford to do so, although their existing capital ships were obsolete. (Smaller and cheaper ships were considered but rejected.) Economic conditions in 1930 were even worse. France did not begin building a new capital ship until 1932.

Italy did not do so until 1934. The new ships entered service well after the Treaty system had collapsed.
10. The London Treaty of 1930 continued the 16" gun size limit imposed by the Washington Treaty of 1922. Did any of the five powers ever complete any capital ships with guns larger than 16" - even after the Treaty system ended?

Answer: Yes - only Japan

The Japanese Navy commissioned the battleship Yamato on December 16, 1941. She and her sister ship Musashi were by far the largest battleships ever built, at over 65,000 tons standard displacement and mounting 18" guns. Japanese strategists reasoned that the size of U.S. battleships would be limited by the Panama Canal.

They calculated that the largest gun the U.S. would deploy given that constraint would be 16", and planned the Yamato class to be individually superior to its projected American counterparts. Did they succeed? The U.S. Navy never developed a gun larger than 16" and the largest U.S. battleships to be completed could still pass through the Canal.

However, the U.S. Navy also developed a "super heavy" 16" shell with almost the same destructive effect as the Japanese 18" shell.

The comparisons are still debated today - and they are moot. The Yamato and Musashi never engaged U.S. battleships.
Source: Author ignotus999

This quiz was reviewed by FunTrivia editor stedman before going online.
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