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Quiz about History of Malaria
Quiz about History of Malaria

History of Malaria Trivia Quiz


Malaria has beset humans for almost 10,000 years. What do you know about the history of this vicious disease?

A multiple-choice quiz by napkintosh. Estimated time: 6 mins.
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Author
napkintosh
Time
6 mins
Type
Multiple Choice
Quiz #
88,033
Updated
Dec 03 21
# Qns
10
Difficulty
Tough
Avg Score
5 / 10
Plays
4563
Awards
Editor's Choice
Last 3 plays: Ranund01 (5/10), klukblazen (4/10), Guest 78 (5/10).
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Question 1 of 10
1. In populations with a high incidence of malaria, there is a concurrent rise in the frequency of sickle cell trait as a sort of "natural defense mechanism." When human bones dating back at least 6,000 years were found in an eastern Mediterranean archaeological site, what was the indication they had come from a person with sickle cell trait? Hint


Question 2 of 10
2. About 3,600 years ago, Egyptians noticed that symptoms of malaria (high fever, shaking chills, nausea, etc.) increased in prevalence during which natural phenomenon? Hint


Question 3 of 10
3. Among many other great achievements, this academician was first to describe the manifestations of malaria and categorize the characteristic fever. Who was this influential physician? Hint


Question 4 of 10
4. Ah, Peru, land of mountains, ancient ruins, and the ever-enigmatic Nazca Lines. It is also the area from which native Peruvians developed the first effective cure for malaria in 1600 - the ground bark of the cinchona tree. What alkaloid, now known to combat the infection, is contained within? Hint


Question 5 of 10
5. 1907 Nobel Laureate Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, son of a renowned army doctor, researched malaria in Constantine, Algeria. In 1889, he was awarded the Bréant Prize for discovering the then-disputed cause of the infection. What microscopic invaders give rise to malaria? Hint


Question 6 of 10
6. One of the more unorthodox treatments for an infectious disease came at the hands of another Nobel Laureate, Julius Wagner-Jauregg. He inoculated people infected by Treponema pallidum with the agent responsible for malaria and let the fever rage until the heat-sensitive spirochete died. Wagner-Jauregg then eliminated the malaria. What disease did this unusual method cure? Hint


Question 7 of 10
7. With the advent of new antimalarial drugs in World War II, certain soldiers discovered some particularly nasty side effects. When administered mepacrine, for example, a man afflicted with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency would develop acute hemolytic anemia, rendering him incapable of doing anything useful. This genetic disorder is actually another safeguard against malaria, but unlike sickle cell trait, G-6-PD deficiency has dietary restrictions. Which of these foods is a must to avoid? Hint


Question 8 of 10
8. Which of these antimalarial drugs, first introduced in 1971, resembles quinine in structure and has the highest incidence of debilitating side effects? Hint


Question 9 of 10
9. Accidentally synthesized in 1874 by Othmar Zeidler, the chemical DDT was first found to have insecticidal properties more than half a century later. The Malaria Eradication Campaign of 1955 saw this mosquito-killer sprayed in numerous countries in which malaria was endemic, all but completely eradicating the disease by 1967. However, DDT had its opponents. What was the title of Rachel Carson's 1962 exposé of DDT's adverse effects on the environment? Hint


Question 10 of 10
10. Scientists have once again started to experiment with qinghao, a plant first used over 2,000 years ago in China as a cure for hemorrhoids. In the 341 AD medicinal handbook "Zhouhou Bei Ji Fang", it is recommended for use in "febrile illnesses." The active antimalarial agent was given the name "artemisinin" in the 1970s, after the plant's botanical name Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood). Does this spell good news for absinthe drinkers in malarious countries?



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Most Recent Scores
May 20 2024 : Ranund01: 5/10
May 10 2024 : klukblazen: 4/10
May 01 2024 : Guest 78: 5/10

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Quiz Answer Key and Fun Facts
1. In populations with a high incidence of malaria, there is a concurrent rise in the frequency of sickle cell trait as a sort of "natural defense mechanism." When human bones dating back at least 6,000 years were found in an eastern Mediterranean archaeological site, what was the indication they had come from a person with sickle cell trait?

Answer: Enlarged marrow spaces in the skull

Enlarged marrow spaces in the skull, or "porotic hyperostosis," gives the skull a stippled, spongy appearance. Sickle cell trait arose as a safeguard against malaria. The Plasmodium parasite enters a red blood cell, causing its oxygen tension to decrease, and the cell sickles.

These malformed cells are eliminated from the circulation in 10-20 days, rather than the normal 3 months, decreasing the number of parasites in the blood stream. Haversian (Leeuwenhoek's) canals are the tiny passageways in compact bone through which blood vessels travel, and Harris lines denote a slowing or cessation in the growth of long bones.
2. About 3,600 years ago, Egyptians noticed that symptoms of malaria (high fever, shaking chills, nausea, etc.) increased in prevalence during which natural phenomenon?

Answer: Flooding of the Nile River

The Anopheles mosquito, sixty-some species of which can transmit malaria, breed in stagnant water. Within the mosquito, species of Plasmodium reproduce sexually and have genetically diverse offspring. When she bites a human (the only vertebrate host), the parasites are released into the blood stream and carried into the liver, where they reproduce asexually.

They then re-enter the blood stream, invade red blood cells, multiply further, and burst out to infect more cells.
3. Among many other great achievements, this academician was first to describe the manifestations of malaria and categorize the characteristic fever. Who was this influential physician?

Answer: Hippocrates

Hippocrates started out as a merchant, albeit not a very good one. Upon moving to Athens in 430 B.C., he began teaching geometry and postulating and discovering all sorts of things. Hippocrates influenced mathematics, meterology, ophthalmology, and most notably, medicine in general.
4. Ah, Peru, land of mountains, ancient ruins, and the ever-enigmatic Nazca Lines. It is also the area from which native Peruvians developed the first effective cure for malaria in 1600 - the ground bark of the cinchona tree. What alkaloid, now known to combat the infection, is contained within?

Answer: Quinine

Quinine is also in tonic water, which lends it a bitter taste. "Peruvian Bark" was available as the agues-fighting "jesuit's powder" in England within 40 years, but the plant itself was wholly unknown until 1737. Some time later, the bitter, spongy bark was renamed in honor of the Countess of Chinch, who had been cured in the mid-1600s.
While similar in spelling, quinidine is a heart medication. Chloroquine is a modern, synthetic anti-malarial, and cinchonine, an alkaloid of cinchona, does not have any anti-malarial properties.
5. 1907 Nobel Laureate Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, son of a renowned army doctor, researched malaria in Constantine, Algeria. In 1889, he was awarded the Bréant Prize for discovering the then-disputed cause of the infection. What microscopic invaders give rise to malaria?

Answer: Protozoa

Laveran attended the Public Health School at Strasbourg from 1863 to 1867, and in 1874 was appointed to the Chair of Military Diseases and Epidemics École de Val-de-Grâce. Four years later, he left for Bône, Algeria to research malarial parasites. Laveran worked for 27 consecutive years investigating protozoal pathogens.
6. One of the more unorthodox treatments for an infectious disease came at the hands of another Nobel Laureate, Julius Wagner-Jauregg. He inoculated people infected by Treponema pallidum with the agent responsible for malaria and let the fever rage until the heat-sensitive spirochete died. Wagner-Jauregg then eliminated the malaria. What disease did this unusual method cure?

Answer: Syphilis

Additionally, Wagner-Jauregg investigated the link between goiter and cretinism. His research prompted the government to begin selling iodine-laced salt to the most heavily afflicted areas. He also worked in the State Lunatic Asylum for some time, and his goal in life was to cure mental problems by producing a fever.
7. With the advent of new antimalarial drugs in World War II, certain soldiers discovered some particularly nasty side effects. When administered mepacrine, for example, a man afflicted with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency would develop acute hemolytic anemia, rendering him incapable of doing anything useful. This genetic disorder is actually another safeguard against malaria, but unlike sickle cell trait, G-6-PD deficiency has dietary restrictions. Which of these foods is a must to avoid?

Answer: Fava beans

G-6-PD is also known as "favism" because consumption of these broad beans causes the red blood cells to explode. Other comestibles many sufferers shy away from include red wine, blueberries, tonic water, and soy products. Additionally, those afflicted must steer clear of mothballs, inhaled pollen, and over 50 drugs.
8. Which of these antimalarial drugs, first introduced in 1971, resembles quinine in structure and has the highest incidence of debilitating side effects?

Answer: Mefloquine

Mefloquine causes serious side effects in 1/6,000 to 1/10,600 people who take it, whereas chloroquine has an incidence of 1/13,600. Quinine itself is more toxic than any of these drugs. One of the devastating adverse effects of mefloquine is delirium, which can be precipitated in those who have pre-existing mental conditions.
9. Accidentally synthesized in 1874 by Othmar Zeidler, the chemical DDT was first found to have insecticidal properties more than half a century later. The Malaria Eradication Campaign of 1955 saw this mosquito-killer sprayed in numerous countries in which malaria was endemic, all but completely eradicating the disease by 1967. However, DDT had its opponents. What was the title of Rachel Carson's 1962 exposé of DDT's adverse effects on the environment?

Answer: Silent Spring

DDT was banned from use in 1972 in the U.S. by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Ruckelshaus. Since then, the number of cases of malaria in endemic areas (mainly African countries) no longer sprayed with DDT has skyrocketed.
"Silent Scream" is a book about partial-birth abortions, and "Unsafe at Any Speed" is about the dangers of GM's rear-engine Corvair.
10. Scientists have once again started to experiment with qinghao, a plant first used over 2,000 years ago in China as a cure for hemorrhoids. In the 341 AD medicinal handbook "Zhouhou Bei Ji Fang", it is recommended for use in "febrile illnesses." The active antimalarial agent was given the name "artemisinin" in the 1970s, after the plant's botanical name Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood). Does this spell good news for absinthe drinkers in malarious countries?

Answer: No

Sweet wormwood is not the same as regular wormwood, although they belong to the same genus (wormwood is A. absinthium). Absinthe is licorice-flavored liquour with a 60% alcohol content, and when mixed with water turns a milky green. It was banned in the U.S. in 1912, and its importation was banned in 1958.
Source: Author napkintosh

This quiz was reviewed by FunTrivia editor crisw before going online.
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