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Here, you'll find all kinds of quizzes on linguistics -- the study of languages and their history. From the Indo-European language family to the International Phonetic Alphabet to the formation of pidgins, it's all here!

For quizzes about a particular world language (such as French or Malay), try following the link to the World Languages category.

35 Linguistics quizzes and 370 Linguistics trivia questions.
  Travel the World of Indo-European Languages editor best quiz   best quiz  
Multiple Choice
 15 Qns
Join me for a world tour of Indo-European languages! We'll be traveling over 6,000 years and 10,000 miles, so pack your suitcase and your linguistic intuition!
Average, 15 Qns, pu2-ke-qi-ri, Jul 21 20
Jul 21 20
9282 plays
  How to Speak Without a Voice editor best quiz   top quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Some babies have the ability to learn sign language before they can speak. Based on Acredolo & Goodwyn's research "Baby Sign Language" is a modification of "American Sign Language." See if you can answer these questions on "how to speak without a voice."
Average, 10 Qns, coachpauly, Dec 19 11
3041 plays
  Basic Linguistics Test Your Knowledge   top quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Owing to the fact that my other linguistics quiz is too hard (!), I have decided to write a simpler one. It concentrates less on the theoretical side of linguistics.
Tough, 10 Qns, Matve, Aug 20 19
Aug 20 19
7606 plays
  It All Sounds Greek To Me   top quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Undoubtedly, it is very difficult to master the Greek language. However, most of us speak Greek every day even though we do not always understand it! This is a quiz dealing with the influence of the Greek language on the English vocabulary. Have fun! :)
Average, 10 Qns, Warzycha, Sep 16 22
Sep 16 22
8341 plays
  This Quiz Made Possible by the Letter "R"   best quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
The friendly, familiar letter "R" is indeed a tricky little beastie. "R" you ready to find out more?
Average, 10 Qns, pu2-ke-qi-ri, Oct 15 20
Oct 15 20
5716 plays
  'Hastings' and the English Language editor best quiz   great trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
It's common knowledge that after the Battle of Hastings, the 'Norman Conquest' created a mixed language with Anglo-Saxon and French vocabulary overlapping each other. This quiz deals with some of the more remarkable effects.
Average, 10 Qns, flem-ish, Feb 13 21
Feb 13 21
10745 plays
  Indo-European Languages   top quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This is a general quiz on Indo-European language families. I hope you find it fun and informative!
Average, 10 Qns, inquizitive, Dec 29 12
4448 plays
  L-ing-guistics   great trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
How much do YOU know about the morphology, syntax, semantics, sociolinguistics, and pragmatics of "ing" usage? Yep. Me too. So you should do fine on this quiz!
Tough, 10 Qns, uglybird, Dec 01 15
3831 plays
  Linguistics 2   popular trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This is just some more information that you can pick up in a basic Linguistics course.
Average, 10 Qns, ladymacb29, Jun 25 23
ladymacb29 editor
Jun 25 23
6461 plays
  Linguistic Anthropology   great trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Linguistic Anthropology deals with communication, language acquisition, language origins, and the cultural connections to language use. Have fun...
Average, 10 Qns, Leki, Mar 07 19
Mar 07 19
5278 plays
trivia question Quick Question
In English, what is the meaning of olagarro, hobotnica, mustekala, poulpe, Krake, polpo and polvo?

From Quiz "Climbing the Tower of Babel, 3rd Floor "

  Sociolinguistics   popular trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Let's see how much you know about the subfield of Sociolinguistics.
Average, 10 Qns, innate13, Feb 17 18
Feb 17 18
2280 plays
  Let's Talk Consonants    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Can you pronounce your consonants correctly? This quiz tests your knowledge on the pronunciations of 24 consonant sounds. Good luck and enjoy!
Average, 10 Qns, Matthew_07, Aug 28 15
Matthew_07 gold member
2299 plays
  Language - Viewed by a Linguist   great trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Like an earlier quiz of mine, this offers a view of language and of grammar that may strike many as unconventional. If you are unfamiliar with linguistics please treat it as a learning experience.
Tough, 10 Qns, bloomsby, Jun 21 14
bloomsby gold member
1941 plays
  Verbing the Noun   popular trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Our language keeps adding new words to accommodate advancing technology, and older ones die off from neglect. Pick the noun that best fits the verb it has become in the 21st century. Enjoy!
Easier, 10 Qns, alexis722, Sep 15 18
Sep 15 18
1552 plays
  Linguistics 101   popular trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This is just some more information that you can pick up in a basic Linguistics course.
Average, 10 Qns, ladymacb29, Apr 19 19
ladymacb29 editor
Apr 19 19
5988 plays
  Into the origins of Western language alphabets   top quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Alphabets are one of the most useful inventions, contributing immensely to the development of our world. Still, more people know in which school Madonna studied than where and how their writing system developed. To change that, play THIS Quiz!
Tough, 10 Qns, zanazana, Jun 05 15
2433 plays
  Basic Linguistic Terms    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Linguistic terminology won't - in itself - help you to improve your linguistic levels. Yet it may help you to have an insight in how a language functions. Terms are illustrated with examples from English, French, Spanish and German.
Very Difficult, 10 Qns, flem-ish, Apr 15 18
Very Difficult
Apr 15 18
4390 plays
  Linguistics   popular trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
I present to you some rather challenging queries on the world of linguistics...good luck!
Tough, 10 Qns, thejazzkickazz, Apr 18 23
thejazzkickazz gold member
Apr 18 23
3636 plays
  A Linguistic Trip Through Europe   great trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
As anyone who has travelled through Europe knows, the languages spoken there differ quite a lot. Here are ten questions about some modern European languages and their predecessors.
Tough, 10 Qns, akg1486, Apr 15 18
Apr 15 18
2847 plays
  Unconventional Grammar   popular trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Have you ever wondered what an essentially semantic grammar might look like? This quiz may shed light on this. Please note that in this kind of grammar the "Object" is inanimate, while the "Experiencer" is animate.
Average, 10 Qns, bloomsby, Aug 29 18
bloomsby gold member
Aug 29 18
2755 plays
  What do you know about Basic linguistics?   popular trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This quiz tries to give a taste of linguistics by presenting some of the basic problems.
Average, 10 Qns, nyul, Feb 25 19
Feb 25 19
2234 plays
  Homeric Questions   popular trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Homer's Greek is linguistically interesting-- a fact not known to most casual readers of the "Iliad" and "Odyssey" in translation. Take this quiz to find out more about the language and poetry of Homer! No knowledge of Greek required.
Average, 10 Qns, pu2-ke-qi-ri, Dec 09 18
Dec 09 18
1908 plays
  The Art of Libretto Translation    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
After two MA dissertations on the subject, I know a thing or two about libretto translation, i.e. translation of a text that is meant to be sung. Let's explore some of the basics of this underrated discipline of translation studies.
Average, 10 Qns, PearlQ19, Nov 13 11
PearlQ19 gold member
457 plays
  Son of Language Family Values    
Multiple Choice
 15 Qns
Somewhat easier than the first entry in the series (!), this quiz simply asks players to match a language to the correct family (or vice versa), or to pick the "odd language out"!
Tough, 15 Qns, Sapir, Mar 08 13
789 plays
  Languages of Asia and the Americas   great trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This might be a bit tough for those not in the language business, but give it a go anyway.
Tough, 10 Qns, twinflame, Jul 26 16
1702 plays
  Augmentative and Alternative Communication    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This quiz concerns a range of communication strategies used by people with disabilities to convey or understand a message.
Average, 10 Qns, littlesuzie, May 30 21
May 30 21
1018 plays
  From Budapest to Volochanka    
Multiple Choice
 20 Qns
This is a quiz about the Uralic language family. Many of these languages are unfamiliar to anyone but specialists in linguistics, so the quiz may be tough! We wrap up with several questions about Uralic in general.
Tough, 20 Qns, Sapir, May 03 20
May 03 20
357 plays
  Turkey In A China Shop   popular trivia quiz  
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
A quiz on country names which became legitimate words in various languages (with a slight bias towards Hebrew).
Tough, 10 Qns, gentlegiant17, Sep 21 11
1849 plays
  Determined to Know the Difference    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Determiners and pronouns are attached to or replace nouns, depending on the context. How well do you know the difference between them?
Average, 10 Qns, Treenage, May 09 17
337 plays
  Matve's Linguistics Challenge    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Welcome to my Linguistics Challenge. Anyone who is doing a Linguistics degree should not complain about the difficulty of the questions; anyone else is welcome to be totally baffled.
Very Difficult, 10 Qns, Matve, Aug 03 19
Very Difficult
Aug 03 19
2555 plays
  Communication Continuum 2    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This is the second quiz in a series of quizzes on the Communication Continuum. This one is about the level known as Intentional Communication.
Average, 10 Qns, littlesuzie, Aug 19 21
Aug 19 21
557 plays
  Dictating Linguistic Terms    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
Past dictators have teamed up with me to illustrate a few linguistic terms involving wordplay/nameplay.
Average, 10 Qns, Rabotniko, Sep 09 16
626 plays
  Communication Continuum    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This is a follow up to my quiz on Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC). It is on the level of communication known as Intentional-Symbolic Communication which is the highest level in the continuum.
Average, 10 Qns, littlesuzie, Jul 13 11
610 plays
  Communication Continuum 3    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
This quiz is about the stage in the Communication Continuum termed as either Pre, or Un-Intentional Communication.
Average, 10 Qns, littlesuzie, May 29 21
May 29 21
562 plays
  Language Family Values    
Multiple Choice
 10 Qns
The process of codifying language families is a difficult one, often involving decades of research and yielding many missteps. This quiz will test your knowledge of language families both proven and hypothetical!
Difficult, 10 Qns, Sapir, Feb 25 18
Feb 25 18
648 plays
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Linguistics Trivia Questions

1. "You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours." In the spirit of cooperation, people often do things for EACH OTHER and ONE ANOTHER. To which class do these two PRONOUNS belong?

From Quiz
Determined to Know the Difference

Answer: Reciprocal

Germans use one word ("einander") to say "each other." The Germans are famous for combining words! English reflexive pronouns, however, demonstrate this tendency too: myself, yourself, ourselves, yourselves, etc. This is indicative of the close connection that the two languages still share.

2. To which language family does Albanian belong?

From Quiz Son of Language Family Values

Answer: Indo-European

Albanian (or "Shqip," to a native speaker) occupies a branch of its own in the Indo-European family, although its position in the family tree is still uncertain. The name "Albanian" was taken from "Albenoi," the name of an Illyrian tribe, as explained by Hellenic astronomer Claudius Ptolemy. The endonym "Shqiptarë" comes from the root "shqip," an adverb meaning "clearly" or "intelligibly" (Lloshi, 2010).

3. Starting off, a portion of a dictator's name has been replaced with a synonym. What is the result?

From Quiz Dictating Linguistic Terms

Answer: Kaiser Wilhat II

The words 'hat' and 'helm' are synonyms. Thus Kaiser Wilhelm II yields Kaiser Wilhat II. Arthur Flegenheimer was the real name of American gangster "Dutch Schultz" and was not a dictator in the sense of this quiz. Adolf Hitler became Adolf Pitler. Tsar Nicholas II, the last tsar of Russia, became Tsar Nicholad, "lass" and "lad" being antonyms.

4. Which part of linguistics deals with the study of meanings of the lexical entries, expressions, and sentences of a certain language?

From Quiz Basic linguistics

Answer: semantics

Semiotics deals with the study of signs, syntax with sentences and logic with the correct rules of deduction.

5. Would a person who used real objects (which are not being used as symbols) to communicate be considered to be in the Intentional level of the Communication Continuum?

From Quiz Communication Continuum 2

Answer: Yes

A person who uses real objects (the actual object which they want) to communicate would be considered to be in the Intentional level of the Communication Continuum. This is because they are using the object to communicate that they want that object, not as a symbol. An example of someone in the Intentional level of the Communication Continuum would be a child who reached for a piece of apple when offered a piece of apple and a piece of orange. In this level individuals are able to make choices if they have the objects in front of them. However they are not able to request new objects as they are not in their field of vision (or whatever other sense the individual has.)

6. How many levels are there to the communication continuum?

From Quiz Communication Continuum

Answer: 3

There are three levels to the communication continuum. These are: Un-intentional or Pre-intentional communication, which is when someone is doing something but it does not seem to have a definite communicative goal in mind. This is where the partner must assign a meaning to the communication. This is the stage which most young babies are at. An example of this is a child cries the parent thinks it is crying because it is hungry and so gives it a bottle; it can also include looking at something you want but not looking at someone else to get it or do something about it. For instance you want music you know the music comes from the radio so you look at the radio but you do not look at a carer, etc. to do something to get the music. Intentional communication which is where someone will look at, point to or otherwise indicate they want something but it has to be in front of them and it has to be a concrete item. A person at this level will look or indicate to another person that they want something or want something done. With this level the partner must still assign a meaning but has some clues from what the person is doing. An example of this is a child looks at a toy and then looks at you. You then get the toy and give it to the child. Another example of this is looking at the heater (you are cold and know that heat comes from it) and then looking at a carer - possible meanings for this are you want the heater turned on or you want to be moved closer. Intentional-symbolic is where you use symbols to get a message across. The partner then just has to decode the message. This is where most people are. Types of symbols used could be object symbols, photographs, pictographs (line drawings), signs (hand/finger signs) or the written word.

7. The French word for which country gave its name to leather or fabric with a napped finish?

From Quiz Turkey In A China Shop

Answer: Sweden

Suede is the material in question. The French "gants de Suède" meaning "Swedish gloves" was generalized over time to name the leather or fabric with this peculiar texture.

8. By what name do linguists call "R-sounds"?

From Quiz This Quiz Made Possible by the Letter "R"

Answer: Rhotics

This category of speech sounds is rather odd, because these sounds are produced in completely different ways, as you shall soon see! They are classed together because people think they sound similar, and people learning a second language will tend to replace a foreign-sounding rhotic with the rhotic from their native language.

9. The first written language appeared around 3300 BC and used cuneiform (wedge-shaped) elements instead of the previous pictograms, and writing direction was changed to left-to-right in horizontal rows. Which is that language?

From Quiz Into the origins of Western language alphabets

Answer: Sumerian

Sumerian ("native tongue") of Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia (today's southeastern Iraq) from 4000 BC and their first use of a writing system was registered in the city of Uruk and Jamdat Nasr (3300 BC). The Sumerian writing system is classified as logophonetic, meaning that its signs represent both meaningful words (morphemes) and sounds. Wet clay tablets were the medium used to register commercial transactions and later laws. Five millennia later, the Hebrew word Ha'kak means both to engrave and to legislate. The spoken Sumerian language virtually died by the 18th century BC, but its writing system was in use until 100 CE. Thus, Sumerian died at the age of 4000.

10. The earliest known examples of the use of Chinese characters are found on "Oracle Bones," that date from about _______ years ago.

From Quiz Languages of Asia and the Americas

Answer: 3500

Those found date to the mid- to late-Shang Dynasty (i.e., 1500-1000 BC), and consist of carvings of characters on turtle shells and animal bones, which are assumed to have been used for divination in the royal court.

11. What is the role of a grammar *in linguistics*?

From Quiz Language - Viewed by a Linguist

Answer: It accounts for all the correct sentences in a language and only correct sentences

In linguistics, grammar describes the language. In principle, it can be organized as a rule-system that can create (or 'generate') all the correct potential sentences in a language - and only correct sentences. Constructing such a grammar is an extremely complex undertaking and nothing even approaching a complete grammar of any natural language has yet been produced.

12. In what meter are the Iliad and the Odyssey written? You might know this as the meter of Longfellow's poem "Evangeline".

From Quiz Homeric Questions

Answer: Dactylic hexameter

Dactylic hexameter consists of six feet, each of which can be either a dactyl, long-short-short, or a spondee, long-long. For a sample of what this really sounds like, there are several recordings up on the web of Stanley Lombardo reading the "Iliad" in Greek.

13. The study of the sounds of language is known as:

From Quiz Linguistic Anthropology

Answer: Phonology

Phonology is split into two subordinate units: phonetics (precise identification and description of speech sounds), and phonemics (identification of the system of the sets of sounds of any language).

14. Morphology: Which hypothesis, which first appeared in Chomsky (1970), was a reaction to the programme of generative semantics?

From Quiz Matve's Linguistics Challenge

Answer: Lexicalist hypothesis

According to this hypothesis, words are to be treated as minimal units from the point of view of the syntax. I'm afraid the other answers are fictional. According to generative semantics, submorphemic semantic constituents are organised by syntactic operations.

15. A dialect of a language which is 'elevated' above others is called:

From Quiz Linguistics 2

Answer: standard

The standard is usually associated with the upper and middle classes and is generally the one used for print.

16. What is the correct term for the omission of a final syllable, sound or letter in a word as in "a cup o' tea", where f is dropped?

From Quiz Basic Linguistic Terms

Answer: Apocope

Elision is more general as a term and refers to any leaving out of sounds especially in rapid speech: plice for police, nex day for next day, mash potatoes for mashed potatoes; gonna for going to and wanna for want to. Liaison is the introduction of a sound between words or syllables to help them run together more smoothly as e.g. in IndiaRandPakistan; mediaRinterest. Clipping: means that you use only a part of the word for the whole word. That can be the first syllable (ad for advertisment), the last syllable (phone for telephone) or a middle syllable (flu for influenza). Apocope is typical as a difference between Chaucerian English and modern English: Husband(e)s fiv(e) had(de) at church(e) door(e) becomes She had five husbands at the door of the church (Wife of Bath). In other words she had officially married five husbands (one after the other). The "opposite" of apocope is aphaeresis: the omission of a syllable, sound or letter at the beginning of a word. Syncope is the omission of etc. from the middle of a word. The pronunciation cats (a)n(d) dogs has aphaeresis AND apocope. The pronunciation of Worcester as "wooste" might be called "syncope". Sounds getting crushed out is a very typical phenomenon of English because of the stress-timed rhythm of the language. Famous example: "Emma Chissit?" for "How much is it?"

17. Who was considered the 'Father of Linguistics', a Swiss guy, who authored the seminal book entitled 'Course in General Linguistics'?

From Quiz Linguistics

Answer: Ferdinand de Saussure

18. The untutored often make the mistake of adding an apostrophe to this singular possessive pronoun. What is the pronoun?

From Quiz Determined to Know the Difference

Answer: its

When confronting a hungry bear, it's best not to mess with its honey. If you know the bear is female and want to express her ownership of the honey, you would not add an apostrophe (her's honey), nor would you add an 's.'

19. What's the -ing that became popular when the "Seinfeld" series was still running?

From Quiz Verbing the Noun

Answer: Regift

What do you do with an unwanted gift from someone? In this classic situation you simply put it back in the box and use it as a gift for someone that person doesn't know, presuming the original gifter doesn't visit you often or have the opportunity to notice that you don't seem to have it around. Seinfeld created some handy new words like 'spongeworthy', an adjective for someone who is worth using personal sexual protection for. I know, I know, a preposition is a word you do not end a sentence with. Unless you do.

20. A portion of our next dictator's name has had an antonym substituted.

From Quiz Dictating Linguistic Terms

Answer: Napoleon Malaparte

'Bon' and 'mal' are opposites, making Napoleon Bonaparte become Napoleon Malaparte. Paul Reubens is not a dictator but rather the real name of Pee Wee Herman. Nikita Kruschev has had a portion substituted with a homophone. Oliver Cromwell/"good" has been given the synonym treatment.

21. Some European languages are more obscure and secretive than others. One of the more enigmatic languages is Basque, spoken in regions of Spain and France. It is sometimes referred to as a "Neolithic language". What does that mean?

From Quiz A Linguistic Trip Through Europe

Answer: It is very, very old

"Neolithic" means "from the stone age". Basque is said to have been relatively unaffected by other languages since that time.

22. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. According to that definition, how many morphemes can be found in the word "imperfections"?

From Quiz Basic linguistics

Answer: 4

The four morphemes are: im- perfect - ion - s Let's have a look at how it works. Starting out from the adjective 'perfect', by adding the suffix '-ion' to it, we get the noun 'perfection'. Now, if we add the prefix 'im-', we'll still have a noun: 'imperfection', but meaning exactly the opposite of 'perfection'. Finally, by adding '-s', the mark of the plural, we'll get 'imperfections' meaning 'more than one thing that is not perfect'.

23. At what stage of communication is a newborn infant?

From Quiz Communication Continuum 3

Answer: Pre-Intentional

A new born is on the Pre, or Un-Intentional stage of the communication continuum. A typically developing child will not usually reach the Intentional stage of the continuum until they are roughly 8-10 months of age.

24. Which African countries gave their names to words in modern spoken Hebrew?

From Quiz Turkey In A China Shop

Answer: Congo and Djibouti

A "congo" is the electric hammer drill used by road workers, and "djibouti sandals" is common speak for flip-flop sandals. It seems to me these are unique to Hebrew, but please correct me if I am wrong. The exact reasons for this particular usage are disputed. Thanks to ledostef for providing the information that a popular brand of electric hammer drills is Kango, which may be where "congo" comes from. Workmen in the UK often say "Where's the Kango?" rather than "Where's the drill?" while on the job.

25. Spanish words with a double R have the most common kind of R-sound in the world's languages. What does it sound like?

From Quiz This Quiz Made Possible by the Letter "R"

Answer: Trilling the tongue against the bony ridge behind the front teeth.

This kind of R is called an "alveolar trill." It's produced by trilling the tip of your tongue against the "alveolar ridge," that ridge of bone behind your front teeth. This is the most common rhotic in the world's languages. Spanish has another rhotic, the "alveolar tap." It is produced by striking the tip of the tongue very rapidly against the alveolar ridge. Interestingly, in Standard American, the alveolar tap is an allophone of /t/. For fun, contrast your pronunciation of the "T" in "Ted" with the "tt" in "Betty." The first is a normal "T," while the second is an alveolar tap in some dialects of English.

26. The first Semitic language developed around 2500 BC, in the Mesopotamia Region. Which was it?

From Quiz Into the origins of Western language alphabets

Answer: Akkadian

Akkadian language developed from Sumeric and was named after the city of Akkad (close to today's Baghdad) with the rise of the Akkadian dynasty. It was also spoken by Assyrians and Babylonians. Since the Sumerian and Akkadian spoken languages are very different, the Sumerian signs were adopted for their sound rather than meaning and became more syllabic (usually consonant + vowel). At this point in time, our writing system have "only" 800 signs.

27. English is a member of the language family known as Germanic languages. What is the closest linguistic relative to modern English?

From Quiz Indo-European Languages

Answer: Frisian

Frisian, spoken in the Frisian Islands (between the UK and the Netherlands), parts of the Netherlands and Germany, is the closest linguistic relative to English. If you want to test whether or not it is mutually intelligible with English, do a web search for Frisian radio... as of this writing it is available on the web and is worth a listen if you are curious about what our closest linguistic relative sounds like. (Those linguists who consider Scots to be a separate language rather than a dialect of English would consider Scots to be the closest linguistic relative of modern English.)

28. Greek poetic meters are not based on syllable stress, like English poetic meters are. Instead, Greek meter is based on what aspect of the syllable?

From Quiz Homeric Questions

Answer: Length

Syllables can be either long or short, depending on how long it takes to pronounce them. A long syllable takes about twice as long to pronounce as a short syllable. Whether a syllable is long depends on the consonants that precede and follow the vowel and whether the vowel is long.

29. Syntax: What name is given in Principles and Parameters theory to verbs such as 'believe', which apparently govern across maximal projections, unlike most verbs?

From Quiz Matve's Linguistics Challenge

Answer: ECM verbs

ECM stands for 'Exceptional Case Marking'. Strong verbs are verbs such as 'bring' in English, which have irregular preterites and past participles. Particle verbs are English verbs composed of a simple verb plus a preposition. Matrix verbs are verbs found in main clauses.

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